In this guide, the word figure refers to all images including, Drawings, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs, Images in publications, etc.
If you are referencing a Table, please see the Referencing Tables tab.
If you are referencing a Visual Work (e.g. a photograph, painting, clipart), please see the Referencing Visual Works tab.
For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books
The advice below is for assignments. If you are completing theses or other published works, please see the section at the bottom of this page.
Figure you are reproducing or adapting from elsewhere and inserting into your assignment
The basic format is:
Title of figure
Note: Explanations to supplement or clarify information in the figure. This may include explanations of units of measurement, symbols, abbreviations, shading, colour, etc. From (information for type of source), Copyright year by the name of the copyright holder.
(For adapted figures, it should be "Adapted from (information for type of source)")
(Note: if no further explanation is required, this section can be omitted.)
From a book or e-book
Life expectancy across time in Pacific nations
Note: Life expectancy change 1950-2040 across various Pacific nations. From Aging and economic growth in the Pacific region (2nd ed., p. 13), by A. Kohsaka, Routledge. Copyright 2013 by Akira Kohsaka.
Kohsaka, A. (2013). Aging and economic growth in the Pacific region. Routledge.
As explained in Figure 1, OR Life expectancy in the Pacific has gone up (Figure 1).
From a journal article
Major wetlands in New Zealand territorial areas
Note: Map of New Zealand showing borders of Regional Councils and Unitary Authorities together with major wetlands. Demonstrates high prevalence of wetlands in some areas that others. From "Wetland management in New Zealand: Are current approaches and policies sustaining wetland ecosystems in agricultural landscapes?", by S. C. Myers, B. R. Clarkson, P. N. Reeves & B. D. Clarkson, 2013, Ecological Engineering, 56(7), p. 113 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.097). Copyright 2013 by Elsevier.
Myers, S. C., Clarkson, B. R., Reeves, P. N., & Clarkson, B. D. (2013). Wetland management in New Zealand: Are current approaches and policies sustaining wetland ecosystems in agricultural landscapes? Ecological Engineering, 56(7), 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.12.097
As shown in Figure 2, OR There is a significant group of wetlands in Northland (Figure 2).
From a website
A depiction of artificial intelligence
Note: Illustration showing how code can get into the minds of people and act as them. From Benefits and risks of artificial intelligence, by Future of Life Institute, n.d. (https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/?cn-reloaded=1),. Copyright by Future of Life Institute.
(In this case, the website is by a corporate author and has no publication date or copyright date.)
Future of Life Institute. (n.d.). Benefits and risks of artificial intelligence. https://futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/
As shown in Figure 3, OR Artificial Intelligence is a way into the human's mind (Figure 3).
Referencing a Figure that you have not inserted into your assignment?
If you are referring to an image or graph that you are have not reproduced in your assignment do your in-text citation as per the source of the image or graph you are using (e.g. book, journal article, web page). (Note: if you can replicate the figure in your assignment, you should)
e.g. (for an online e-book)
...a great representation of Feng Shui as shown in the bathroom at the country estate St Anne's Court (Skinner, 2004, p. 87)
Skinner, S. (2004). Feng Shui style: The Asian art of gracious living. Periplus Editions
Inserting Figures into a thesis or published publication?
If you are inserting a figure into a thesis or published publication, you need to get permission to use that image or graph. Once you have that permission, you can add to the end of the Note: beneath your figure: Reprinted with permission OR Adapted with permission. Alternatively, if you are using a Creative Commons image, insert the details of the relevant license.
Authors' names : Authors names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial. e.g. Smith, L. M.
Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.
For a book only the book title should be in italics
For a journal only the journal title and the volume number should be in intalics
For a web page there should be no italics used
For a book : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle. Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.
For a journal : For an article title, the first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle. Everything else in the article title should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals. For a journal title, all major words need to be capitalized.
For a web page : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle. Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.
Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark. Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.
Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen. If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.
For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."
If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.
Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.
In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)