APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Music Recordings and Scores

At the end of your assignment, essay or project you must include a reference list that gives the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author, composer and/or performer and publication information (if it is a published work, eg. book or magazine/journal article).

Music references are similar to books; the composer, the title of the work, the performer/s, the date and location are given so that whoever is reading your assignment can trace the work/s you refer to and also to acknowledge the people who performed or contributed to the work.


The basic elements:

Composer, X.  (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by X.X. Singer, if different from composer]. On Title of album [medium of recording]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from copyright date)

eg. Hunter, S. (1981). Happy tunes. [Recorded by S. Gatherer]. On Sunshine singalong [CD]. Auckland, New  Zealand: Reef (1992)


Performer and composer are the same:

Reference list

Davis, M. (2001). Buzzard Song On Birth of the cool [CD] (Classics in jazz (Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif.). Hollywood, Calif.: Capitol Jazz Records.
In text citation (Davis, 2001, track 1)


Performer and composer are different:

Reference list

Hunter, S. (1981). Happy tunes. [Recorded by S. Gatherer]. On Sunshine singalong [CD]. Auckland, New  Zealand: Reef (1992)

In-text citation (Gatherer. 1992, track 3)


The basic elements:

Composer, X. X. (Year of publication). Title of score [Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

eg. Todd, S. (1964). Twisting til sunrise [Score]. Auckland: Catchy Tunes for Teens.

In-text citation (Todd, 1964)

nb: examples of medium include, score, choral score, miniature score, orchestral score, libretto, lyrics, song etc.


Score from a collected work or anthology:

Todd, L. E. (1959). Sibling squabble. In H. E. Gibson (Ed.), Tunes for happy families (2nd., Vol. 2, pp. 10-20). Auckland: Belfast Musical.


Other places to look for more information on referencing music resources:

University of Canterbury APA music guide:Referencing Music in the APA style

Youtube, DVDs and CDs - Please use the information under the blue tabs on the homepage of this guide, Youtube information is with DVDs, Videos and CDRoms






Things to remember

Authors' names : Use the Producer and the Director of a film in the place of the authors.


Dates of Films :Dates for films should be the date of first release, not when the video/DVD was published.


Italics : Only the film title or title of the CD-ROM should be in italics. 


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.