Chicago Referencing (16th ed.)

From 2019, Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed be used.

From 2019, Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed be used.

From 2019, Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed be used.

If you are using 16th ed. for your research please discuss with your lecturer or supervisor. Academic staff can give guidance on what is required. Please refer to the University of Western Australia's guide to Chicago 17th while Unitec's own guide is being created.

Other media



David Gatley, "Design Management in Architecture: The Management of the Creative Process During the Design Stages of a Project in an Architectural Practice in New Zealand" (master's thesis, Unitec, 1999). 79


Theses are not included in your bibliography.


If the paper is published in a book treat it like a chapter; if it is published in a journal treat it like a journal article.



Personal interviews or personal communications (such as an e-mail) are included in the footnotes, but not in the bibliography. You may either work the information into the text or give it in a footnote:

"In an e-mail message to the author on December 13, 2013 Rem Koolhaas stated that..."

    Rem Koolhaas, e-mail message to author, December 13, 2013.


Things to remember

Authors' names :

NotesAll authors' names should be Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography :  First author should be inverted as Surname, Name Name e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be Name, Name, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both notes and bibliographies. If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Name Name Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Jenkins:  "Harry Jenkins states "Recent accounts of fandom in the field of cultural studies have stressed the often negative and hostile representation of fan culture in the mass media."



Harry Jenkins, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, (New York: Routledge, 1992), 13, quoted in Cornel Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization, (New York: Routlege, 2003), 16.



Jenkins, Harry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and

     Participatory Culture, 13. New York: Routledge, 1992.

     Quoted in Cornell Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves:

     Football, Television and Globalization. New York:

     Routledge, 2003, 16.