Chicago Referencing (16th ed.)

From 2019, Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed be used.

From 2019, Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed be used.

From 2019, Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed be used.

If you are using 16th ed. for your research please discuss with your lecturer or supervisor. Academic staff can give guidance on what is required. Please refer to the University of Western Australia's guide to Chicago 17th while Unitec's own guide is being created.

Web Pages

This pages gives some examples of how to reference web pages. Information to include:

  • author (if known)
  • section or page title or description (in quotation marks)
  • owner/title of website
  • modification or publication or access date
  • URL

When referencing web sites you should include the date the web site was last modified, if available.  If the site does not have a modification date give the date you accessed the site.


Web page

With modification date


Auckland Council, "Auckland Fire Ban Remains in Place," last modified February 14, 2013,


Auckland Council. "Auckland Fire Ban Remains in Place." Last modified February 13, 2013.

Without modification date - include date accessed


Jackie Craven, "What is New Urbanism?" accessed December 18, 2013,


Craven, Jackie, "What is New Urbanism?" Accessed December 18, 2013.


Things to remember

Authors' names :

NotesAll authors' names should be Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography :  First authors should be inverted as Surname, Name Name e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be Name, Name, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both notes and bibliographies. If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Name Name Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Jenkins:  "Harry Jenkins states "Recent accounts of fandom in the field of cultural studies have stressed the often negative and hostile representation of fan culture in the mass media."



Harry Jenkins, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, (New York: Routledge, 1992), 13, quoted in Cornel Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization, (New York: Routlege, 2003), 16.



Jenkins, Harry. Textual Poachers: Television Fans and

     Participatory Culture, 13. New York: Routledge, 1992.

     Quoted in Cornell Sandvoss, A Game of Two Halves:

     Football, Television and Globalization. New York:

     Routledge, 2003, 16.