Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes
The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.
The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.
Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.
If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Student Learning & Achievement team for help.
Referencing Web Pages
This pages gives examples for how to reference web pages. Information to include:
When referencing web pages you should include the date the web site was last modified, if available. If the site does not have a modification date give the date you accessed the site.
Important: If your web page is actually another form of resource, e.g. report, journal article, magazine article, newspaper article on the Internet, you must follow the referencing style for that type of resource.
The format for a web page with a corporate/organisational author/owner and a web page with with an individual author/owner are a little different from each other, as below.
Web page with corporate/organisational author/owner
1. "Working With an Architect," Connect, New Zealand Institute of Architects, accessed May 29, 2019, https://www.nzia.co.nz/connect/working-with-an-architect.
Note: For a corporate or organisational author or owner, the title of the webpage goes first, followed by the name of the website it is within, then the author..
2. New Zealand Institute of Architects, "Working With an Architect.".
New Zealand Institute of Architects. "Working With an Architect." Connect. Accessed May 29, 2019. https://www.nzia.co.nz/connect/working-with-an-architect
Note: 'Connect' is the name of the larger website.
Web page with individual author/owner
1. Joe Coates, "Whare Whakairo: The Personification of Maori Architecture," Culture Trip, updated May 1, 2018, https://theculturetrip.com/pacific/new-zealand/articles/whare-whakairo-the-personification-of-maori-architecture/.
Note: For an individual author or owner, the name of the author goes first, followed by the name of the webpage, then the name of the website it is within.
2. Joe Coates, "Whare Whakairo,".
Coates, Joe. "Whare Whakairo: The Personification of Maori Architecture." Culture Trip. Updated May 1, 2018. https://theculturetrip.com/pacific/new-zealand/articles/whare-whakairo-the-personification-of-maori-architecture/.
Note: 'Culture Trip' is the name of the larger website.
Online Written Text of an Interview
1. Roger Walker, "Roger Walker - Gold Medial Interview," interview by John Walsh, NZIA Interviews, n.d. https://www.nzia.co.nz/explore/interviews/roger-walker-in-conversation.
2. Walker, "Roger Walker Interview,".
Walker, Roger. "Roger Walker - Gold Medal Interview." By John Walsh. NZIA Interviews, n.d. https://www.nzia.co.nz/explore/interviews/roger-walker-in-conversation.
1. Lee Calisti, "The Architecture of Theory and How It Is Evidence in My Practice," Think/Architect (blog), May 14, 2019, https://thinkarchitect.wordpress.com/2019/05/14/the-architecture-of-theory-and-how-it-is-evidenced-in-my-practice/.
2. Calisti, "Architecture of Theory.".
Calisti, Lee. "The Architecture of Theory and How It Is Evidence in My Practice." Think/Architect (blog), May 14, 2019. https://thinkarchitect.wordpress.com/2019/05/14/the-architecture-of-theory-and-how-it-is-evidenced-in-my-practice/.
1. Zach Herrbach (@Zachhh), "I do love me some visually pleasing architecture," Twitter, June 4, 2019, https://twitter.com/ZachHerrbach/status/1135663918502879232.
2. Herrbach, "Visually pleasing architecture.".
Note: If you don't have the proper name of the author, you can use their handle.
Herrbach, Zach (@Zachhh). "I do love me some visually pleasing architecture." Twitter, June 4, 2019. https://twitter.com/ZachHerrbach/status/1135663918502879232.
Note: When referencing Social Media, the title is approximately the first 160 characters of the post. Capitalization is as per the original post.
Online book or book section
See 'Referencing Books'
Online journal article
Online magazine or newspaper article
Online encyclopedia or dictionary entry (including Wikipedia)
Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)
Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote. In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged. You should use a short footnote (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).
Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author. In Chicago 17th, you should not do this. Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.