Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Chicago Referencing - 17th edition

Unitec specifies that Chicago 17th ed. be used.

If you are using 16th ed. for your research please discuss this with your lecturer or supervisor. Academic staff will provide guidance on what is required.

Look at the tabs on the left to discover how to reference various items in Chicago Style - 17th edition.  

If you need more help, take a look at these two guides that provide examples in Chicago 17th ed. or seek guidance from your lecturers or the Learning Advisors team.

The Basics of Chicago Style

Unitec uses the Chicago style called the notes system

It involves the use of footnotes and a bibliography and an illustration list for any images used.

Place a footnote at the bottom of the page on which your referenced idea appears. 

At the end of your assignment, essay or project is a bibliography containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines. 

Figures and Tables may have to be included in a separate Illustration List ordered according to the Figure number.  Alternatively, a footnote may suffice.  Check with your lecturer on this.  


When using another's ideas or words in your assignment or project, you should include a footnote citation to the original work. Footnotes are numbered consecutively (from 1....) within the text, and the footnote itself appears at the bottom of the page containing the reference.
Each individual footnote should be indented on the first line.

 Example of a direct quote (use for quotes of less than 100 words that are also not any of the things given below)

David Watkin states "The two other principle buildings on the Acropolis are the Propylaea and the Erichtheion".1...

Footnote: 1. David Watkin, History of Western Architecture, 5th ed. (London: Laurence King, 2011), 25.


Example of a long direct quote (block quote) use for quotes of more than 100 words, two or more paragraphs, quoted correspondence (if a salutation or signature is included) , lists, more than two lines of poetry, or any material that requires special formatting.

Long direct (Block) quotes should be introduced by an informative sentence, usually followed by a colon and indented 5 spaces from the left margin.  Indenting the text means quotation marks are not required.

Wakita and Linde state:    

By understanding the direction and the quantity of water flowing through a property, one can turn it into a positive force.  A dry riverbed in a garden, with rocks and plants surrounding it, can become a small stream during the rains.  It can produce falls and fountains as the water is channelled into a pond or reflection pool. 2

Footnote: 2. Osamu A. Wakita and Richard M. Linde, Professional Practice of Architectural Detailing, 3rd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1999), 33.

Note: If you are citing poetry, check with Unitec staff for the correct format.

(The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 13.22, pp. 717-718 & section 13.25, pp. 719).  

Example of an indirect quote (an indirect quote is when you summarize or paraphrase using your own words)

According to Steve Race, using BIM to simulate construction sequencing can lead to efficiencies for the construction contractor and can bring forward the building completion date for the client. 3

Footnote: 3. Steve Race, "Will our Clients Want BIM?," in BIM Demystified: An Architect's Guide to Building Information Modelling/Management (BIM), 2nd ed. (London: RIBA, 2013), 68.  (This is a book chapter.)


At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a bibliography containing the full details of each work you have cited in your notes as well as any work that was consulted but not cited. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information.  The first line of the reference should be flush with the margin.  Second and subsequent lines should be indented.

Bibliography example

Race, Steve. “Will our Clients Want BIM?.” In BIM Demystified: An Architect’s Guide to Building Information Modelling/Management (BIM),  2nd ed. London: RIBA, 2013.

Wakita, Osamu A. & Richard M. Linde. The Professional Practice of Architectural Detailing, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

Watkin, David. A History of Western Architecture, 5th ed. London: Laurence King, 2011.

Illustration List (may be needed for Theses/Dissertations)

This is a list of all Figures eg. images, photos tables etc. you have used in your work and usually appears after the Table of Contents.  It is ordered by Figure Number.  Contact the Learning Advisors team for more help with this.  

Style Guide Available at the library

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.