Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.

Referencing Reports

This page gives examples of how to reference reports.  Reports may include government, corporate or organisational reports.  

Note: For information on how to handle multiple authors, see the 'Referencing Books' tab.

Note: If the report lists a clear publication place and publisher, include that in the citation (putting the information in brackets (like the example for 'Print Report').  If there is no clear publication place, and publisher, you can leave it out (like the example for 'Online Report').

Print Report

Long Footnote

   1. BRE Trust and Cyril Sweett,  Putting a Price on Sustainability (Watford, United Kingdom: BRE Bookshop, 2005), 19.

Shorterned Footnote

   2. BRE Trust and Cyril Sweett, Putting a Price on Sustainability, 19.


BRE Trust and Cyril Sweett. Putting a Price on Sustainability. Watford, United Kingdom: BRE Bookshop, 2005.


Online Report

Long Footnote

   1. Price Waterhouse Coopers, The Value of Design to New Zealand, July 2017, 40,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Price Waterhouse Coopers, Value of Design, 40. 


Price Waterhouse Coopers. The Value of Design to New Zealand. July 2017.


Report with Named Authors

Long Footnote

   1. I. McChesney, I. Cox-Smith, and L. Armitrano, Thermal Insulation in New Zealand Homes: A Status Report, a Report for Beacon Pathway Ltd,  March 2008, 29,


   1. McChesney, Cox-Smith and Armitrano, Thermal Insulation in New Zealand Homes, 29.


McChesney, I., I. Cox-Smith, and L. Armitrano. Thermal Insulation in New Zealand Homes: A Status Report, a Report for Beacon Pathway Ltd, March 2008.


Annual Report

Long Footnote

   1. New Zealand Registered Architects Board, 2016/17 Annual Report, October 2018, 9,

Shortened Footnote

   1. NZ Registered Architects Board, 2016/17 Annual Report, 9. 


New Zealand Registered Architects Board. 2016/17 Annual Report, October 2018.


Report which includes a report number

Long Footnote

   1. N. R. Buckett, Advanced Residential Construction Techniques: Opportunities and Implications for New Zealand. Study Report SR311 (Judgeford, New Zealand: BRANZ, 2014), 41.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Buckett, Advanced Residential Construction Techniques, 41.


Buckett, N. R. Advanced Residential Construction Techniques: Opportunities and Implications for New Zealand. Study Report SR311. Judgeford, New Zealand: BRANZ Ltd, 2014.

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.