Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.

Referencing Web Pages

This pages gives examples for how to reference web pages. Information to include:

  • the title or description of the specific page (if cited)
  • the title or description of the site as a whole
  • the author or corporate author of the site
  • URL
  • modification date or access date

When referencing web pages you should include the date the web site was last modified, if available.  If the site does not have a modification date give the date you accessed the site.

Important:  If your web page is actually another form of resource, e.g. report, journal article, magazine article, newspaper article on the Internet, you must follow the referencing style for that type of resource.  

The format for a web page with a corporate/organisational author/owner and a web page with with an individual author/owner are a little different from each other, as below.  

Web page with corporate/organisational author/owner

Long Footnote

   1. "Working With an Architect," Connect, New Zealand Institute of Architects, accessed May 29, 2019,

Note: For a corporate or organisational author or owner, the title of the webpage goes first, followed by the name of the website it is within, then the author..  

Shortened Footnote

   2. New Zealand Institute of Architects, "Working With an Architect.".


New Zealand Institute of Architects. "Working With an Architect."  Connect. Accessed May 29, 2019.

Note: 'Connect' is the name of the larger website.


Web page with individual author/owner

Long Footnote

   1. Joe Coates, "Whare Whakairo: The Personification of Maori Architecture," Culture Trip, updated May 1, 2018,

Note: For an individual author or owner, the name of the author goes first, followed by the name of the webpage, then the name of the website it is within.

Shortened Footnote

    2. Joe Coates, "Whare Whakairo,".


Coates, Joe. "Whare Whakairo: The Personification of Maori Architecture." Culture Trip. Updated May 1, 2018.

Note: 'Culture Trip' is the name of the larger website.


Online Written Text of an Interview

Long Footnote

   1. Roger Walker, "Roger Walker - Gold Medial Interview," interview by John Walsh, NZIA Interviews, n.d.

Shortened Footnote

    2. Walker, "Roger Walker Interview,".


Walker, Roger. "Roger Walker - Gold Medal Interview." By John Walsh. NZIA Interviews, n.d.


Blog post

Long Footnote

   1. Lee Calisti, "The Architecture of Theory and How It Is Evidence in My Practice," Think/Architect (blog), May 14, 2019,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Calisti, "Architecture of Theory.".


Calisti, Lee. "The Architecture of Theory and How It Is Evidence in My Practice." Think/Architect (blog), May 14, 2019.


Social Media

Long Footnote

   1. Zach Herrbach (@Zachhh), "I do love me some visually pleasing architecture," Twitter, June 4, 2019,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Herrbach, "Visually pleasing architecture.".

Note: If you don't have the proper name of the author, you can use their handle.


Herrbach, Zach (@Zachhh). "I do love me some visually pleasing architecture." Twitter, June 4, 2019.

Note: When referencing Social Media, the title is approximately the first 160 characters of the post.  Capitalization is as per the original post.


Online book or book section

See 'Referencing Books'

Online journal article

See 'Referencing Journal Articles'

Online magazine or newspaper article

See 'Referencing Magazine & Newspaper Articles'

Online encyclopedia or dictionary entry (including Wikipedia)

See 'Referencing Reference Works'

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.