Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes
The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.
The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.
Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.
If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.
Referencing Entries from Reference Works
This page contains examples of how to reference entries from reference works (e.g. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries).
When using a reference work which lists entries alphabetically, the item (not the volume or page number) should be used preceded by s.v. (sub verbo - under the word)
A reference work entry from a printed source
1. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 6th ed, vol. 1 (2007),. s.v. "charette.".
1. Dictionary of Architecture & Construction, 3rd ed. (2000). s.v. "stepped flashing."
2. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. "charette.".
2. Dictionary of Architecture & Construction, s.v. "stepped flashing."
A reference work entry from an online source
1. Merriam-Webster, s.v. "stylobate," accessed July 24, 2019, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stylobate
2. Merriam-Webster, s.v. "stylobate,"
2. SAH Archipedia, s.v. "Stratosphere Tower,"
Online reference works are not normally cited in Bibliographies (unless you are citing a longer reference entry with a named author (see below). (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sections 14.233, 14.234, p. 858-859).
A Wikipedia entry
1. Wikipedia, s.v. "wharenui," last modified July 21, 2019, 03:45, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wharenui
Wikipedia entries are not normally cited in Bibliographies (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.233, p. 858-859).
A more substantial reference entry by a named author
When you have a more substantial reference entry by a named author, it is more appropriate to cite the individual entries by author, in a similar way to a chapter in an edited book.
1) From a print source
1. Andrew Wilson. "Hayes & Scott," in The Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture, eds. Philip Goad and Julie Willis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 320.
2. Wilson, "Hayes & Scott," 320.
2) From an online source
1. Ben Schrader. "Maori Housing - Te Noho Whare," in Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, article published September 5, 2013, https://teara.govt.nz/en/maori-housing-te-noho-whare.
2. Schrader, "Maori housing.".
Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)
Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote. In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged. You should use a short footnote (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).
Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author. In Chicago 17th, you should not do this. Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.