Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes
The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.
The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.
Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.
If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.
Referencing Audio-Visual Materials
This page gives examples of how to reference common audio-visual materials.
How you reference audio-visual materials will vary according to the nature of the material. Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included.
Film on DVD/Video
1. Rem Koolhaus: A Kind of Architect, directed by Markus Heidingsfelder and Min Tesch (Collingwood, VIC, Australia: Madman Entertainment, distributor, 2007), DVD.
2. Rem Koolhaus.
TV Show from On-Demand or Streaming Source (e.g. ETV)
1. The Art of the Architect, season 1, episode 3, "Oriental," directed by Dean Cornish, written by Dean Cornish and Doug Dillaman, series produced by Dana Youngman, featuring Peter Elliott, aired 2014, on TVNZ, https://www.tvnz.co.nz/shows/the-art-of-the-architect/episodes/s1-e3.
2. Art of the Architect, "Oriental,".
(Note: Include all the key information about the recording.)
Online Video (e.g. YouTube video). (Note: if there is a key speaker in the video, see the next example - "Online Video with Specific Speaker/s')
1. New Zealand Institute of Architects, "Andrew Patterson Talks New Zealand Architecture," November 13, 2017, YouTube video, 09:40, posted by Patteson Associates, https://youtu.be/WKND5DaQtB0.
2. NZIA, "Andrew Patterson,".
(Note: If there is no clear author of the video, start with the video title.)
Online Video with Specific Speaker/s (e.g. TED Talks video)
1. Ole Scheeran, "Why Great Architecture Should Tell a Story," filmed September 2015 in London, TED Video, 16:27, https://www.ted.com/talks/ole_scheeren_why_great_architecture_should_tell_a_story?language=en.
2. Scheeran, "Why Great Architecture Should Tell A Story,".
1. Evan Troxel, Neal Pann, and Cormac Phalen, "Design Future," Archispeak, episode 162, May 5, 2019, podcast, MP3 audio, 55:18, https://archispeakpodcast.com/episodes/162.
2. Troxel, Pann, and Phalen. "Design Future,".
For information on how to reference other audio-visual materials, see the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition.
Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)
Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote. In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged. You should use a short footnote (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).
Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author. In Chicago 17th, you should not do this. Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.