Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.

Referencing Audio-Visual Materials

This page gives examples of how to reference common audio-visual materials.  

How you reference audio-visual materials will vary according to the nature of the material.  Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included.  

Film on DVD/Video

Long Footnote

   1. Rem Koolhaus: A Kind of Architect, directed by Markus Heidingsfelder and Min Tesch (Collingwood, VIC, Australia: Madman Entertainment, distributor, 2007), DVD.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Rem Koolhaus.


Heidingsfelder, Markus and Min Tesch, dirs. Rem Koolhaus: A Kind of Architect. Collingwood, VIC, Australia: Madman Entertainment, distributor, 2007. DVD.


TV Show from On-Demand or Streaming Source (e.g. ETV)

Long Footnote

  1. The Art of the Architect, season 1, episode 3, "Oriental," directed by Dean Cornish, written by Dean Cornish and Doug Dillaman, series produced by Dana Youngman, featuring Peter Elliott, aired 2014, on TVNZ,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Art of the Architect, "Oriental,".


Cornish, Dean, dir. The Art of the Architect. Season 1, episode 3, "Oriental." written by Dean Cornish and Doug Dillaman, series produced by Dana Youngman, featuring Peter Elliott. Aired 2014, on TVNZ.

(Note: Include all the key information about the recording.)


Online Video (e.g. YouTube video). (Note: if there is a key speaker in the video, see the next example - "Online Video with Specific Speaker/s')

Long Footnote

  1. New Zealand Institute of Architects, "Andrew Patterson Talks New Zealand Architecture," November 13, 2017, YouTube video, 09:40, posted by Patteson Associates,

Shortened Footnote

   2. NZIA, "Andrew Patterson,".


New Zealand Institute of Architects. "Andrew Patterson Talks New Zealand Architecture." November 13, 2017. YouTube video, 09:40. Posted by Patteson Associates.

(Note: If there is no clear author of the video, start with the video title.)


Online Video with Specific Speaker/s (e.g. TED Talks video)

Long Footnote

  1. Ole Scheeran, "Why Great Architecture Should Tell a Story," filmed September 2015 in London, TED Video, 16:27,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Scheeran, "Why Great Architecture Should Tell A Story,".


Scheeran, Ole. "Why Great Architecture Should Tell a Story." Filmed September 2015 in London. TED Video, 16:27.



Long Footnote

  1. Evan Troxel, Neal Pann, and Cormac Phalen, "Design Future," Archispeak, episode 162, May 5, 2019, podcast, MP3 audio, 55:18,  

Shortened Footnote

   2. Troxel, Pann, and Phalen. "Design Future,".


Troxel, Evan, Neal Pann, and Cormac Phalen. "Design Future." Archispeak, Episode 162, May 5, 2019. Podcast. MP3 audio, 55:18.


For information on how to reference other audio-visual materials, see the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition.  

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.