Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.

Referencing Conference Papers & Presentations

Paper, Poster or Powerpoint Slides presented at a conference accessed online

Long Footnote

   1. Mike Austin and Ginny Pedlow, "Bi-Cultural Architecture," (paper, 5th Annual International Conference on Architecture, Athens, Greece, July 6-9 2015),

Shortened Footnote

   2. Austin and Pedlow, "Bi-Cultural Architecture,".


Austin, Mike and Ginny Pedlow. "Bi-Cultural Architecture." Paper presented at the 5th Annual International Conference on Architecture, Athens, Greece, July 6-9 2015.

(Note: If referencing a poster, use "poster", instead of "paper".  If referencing Powerpoint slides, use "PowerPoint presentation" instead of "paper".)


Paper in a Proceedings or Book

Long Footnote

  1. Annaliese Mirus, Yusef Patel, and Peter McPherson, "Pre-Fabrication: New Zealand's Golden Ticket?," in Meeting the Challenges of Higher Density: 52nd International Conference of The Architectural Science Association, ed. Priyadarsini Rajagopalan and Mary Andamon (Melbourne, Australia: The Architectural Science Association, 2018), 419.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Mirus, Patel and McPherson, "Pre-Fabrication," 419.


Mirus, Annaliese, Yusef Patel, and Peter McPherson. "Pre-Fabrication: New Zealand's Golden Ticket?." In Meeting the Challenge of Higher Density: 52nd International Conference of The Architectural Science Association, ed. Priyadarsini Rajagopalan and Mary Andamon. Melbourne Australia: The Architectural Science Association, 2018, 417-423.

Paper in a Journal issue

Treat it like a journal article.   

Referencing Class PowerPoint slides, lectures & course notes

Long Footnote

   1. Annabel Pretty, "Maori Architecture," (PowerPoint presentation, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, April 19, 2019). 

Shortened Footnote

   2. Pretty, "Maori Architecture,".


Pretty, Annabel. "Maori Architecture." PowerPoint presentation, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, April 19, 2019. 

Note: you can replace "Powerpoint presentation", with "Lecture" or "Course Notes".


Referencing Press Releases

Long Footnote

   1. New Zealand Institute of Architects, "2018 New Zealand Architecture Awards Announced," news release, November 9, 2018,

Shortened Footnote

   2. NZIA, "2018 New Zealand Architecture Awards.".


New Zealand Institute of Architects. "2018 New Zealand Architecture Awards Announced." News Release. November 9, 2018.


Referencing Unpublished Research Interviews

Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in footnotes.  They rarely appear in bibliographies/reference lists.  Citations should include the names of both the person being interviewed and the interview, brief identifying information (if appropriate), and the place or date or the interview (or both, if known..)

"In an interview with the author in Auckland on March 19, 2019, Peter McPherson, Head of the School of Architecture at Unitec Institute of Technology, said...."

    1. Peter McPherson (Head of the School of Architecture at Unitec Institute of Technology), in interview with the author, March, 19, 2019.

If you need to keep the names of your interviewers anonymous, you can do so, but you should explain why you need to do so (e.g. in your text, add a sentence "All interviews were conducted in confidentiality, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement").

"In a discussion with a leading New Zealand architect, November 3, 2018...."


    1. Interview with Leading New Zealand architect, November 3, 2018.


* For interviews published online (in print), see the 'Referencing Web pages' tab.  For interviews published online (as a sound recording), follow the example for Podcast on the 'Referencing Audio Visual Materials' tab.  


Referencing Personal Communications

Personal communications (such as an e-mail or direct message) are included in the footnotes, but not in the bibliography. You may either work the information into the text or give it in a footnote:

"In an e-mail message to the author on December 13, 2013, Bin Su wrote that..."

    1. Bin Su, e-mail message to author, December 13, 2013.

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.