Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes
The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.
The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.
Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.
If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.
This page gives examples of how to reference print and online theses or dissertations and New Zealand Standards.
Referencing Theses or Dissertations
1. Jonathan Lim, "The Living Barrier: Residential Architecture Acting as a Noise Barrier Near Railway Corridors," (master's thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 2018), 38, http://researcharchive.vuw.ac.nz/handle/10063/7727.
2. Lim, "Living Barrier," 38.
(Note: Remove 'A' or 'The' at the front of titles for a Short footnote)
From a database
1. Rashed Khalifa Al-Shaali, "Tools for Natural Ventilation in Architecture," (PhD diss., University of California, 2006), 40-41, ProQuest SciTech Premium Collection.
2. Al-Shaali, "Tools for Natural Ventilation," 40-41.
1. Amanda Hyde, "Foucault's Archaeological Method: Towards an Ethics of Site in Architectural Education," (PhD thesis, University of Auckland, 2003), 28.
2. Hyde, "Foucault's Archaeological Method," 28.
Referencing New Zealand Standards
Obtained from our "Standards New Zealand Online Library" database
1. Timber-Framed Buildings, NZS 3604:2011 (Wellington: Standards New Zealand, approved February 13, 2011), 13.3.4, Standards New Zealand Online Library.
2. NZS 3604:2011, 13.3.4.
Follow the same as above but leave out the words 'Standards New Zealand Online Library'
Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)
Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote. In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged. You should use a short footnote (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).
Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author. In Chicago 17th, you should not do this. Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.