Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.

This page gives examples of how to reference print and online theses or dissertations and New Zealand Standards.

Referencing Theses or Dissertations

Obtained online

Long Footnote

   1. Jonathan Lim, "The Living Barrier: Residential Architecture Acting as a Noise Barrier Near Railway Corridors," (master's thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 2018), 38,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Lim, "Living Barrier," 38.

(Note: Remove 'A' or 'The' at the front of titles for a Short footnote)


Lim, Jonathan. "The Living Barrier: Residential Architecture Acting as a Noise Barrier Near Railway Corridors." Master's thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 2018.


From a database

Long Footnote

   1. Rashed Khalifa Al-Shaali, "Tools for Natural Ventilation in Architecture," (PhD diss., University of California, 2006), 40-41, ProQuest SciTech Premium Collection.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Al-Shaali, "Tools for Natural Ventilation," 40-41.


Al-Shaali, Rashed Khalifa. "Tools for Natural Ventilation in Architecture." PhD diss. University of California, 2006. ProQuest SciTech Premium Collection.


In print

Long Footnote

   1. Amanda Hyde, "Foucault's Archaeological Method: Towards an Ethics of Site in Architectural Education," (PhD thesis, University of Auckland, 2003), 28.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Hyde, "Foucault's Archaeological Method," 28.


Hyde, Amanda. "Foucault's Archaeological Method: Towards an Ethics of Site in Architectural Education." PhD thesis, University of Auckland, 2003.


Referencing New Zealand Standards

Obtained from our "Standards New Zealand Online Library" database

Long Footnote

   1. Timber-Framed Buildings, NZS 3604:2011 (Wellington: Standards New Zealand, approved February 13, 2011), 13.3.4, Standards New Zealand Online Library.

Shortened Footnote

   2. NZS 3604:2011, 13.3.4.


Standards New Zealand. Timber-Framed Buildings. NZS 3604:2011. Wellington, New Zealand: Standards New Zealand, approved February 13, 2011. Standards New Zealand Online Library. 


Print Standard

Follow the same as above but leave out the words 'Standards New Zealand Online Library'

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.