Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".


Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If a book or journal article quotes another work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.  (Note: Postgraduate students should try to source the original information source whenever possible.)

The basic format for the footnote is to put a citation for the original source, then 'quoted in' and a full reference for the source read.  The bibliography citation should be for the source you actually read.  

Example (Citing a book where the author has cited another author's article.)

e.g. Eastman and Siabiris state that "this is the case in systems like EDM"

Long Footnote

   1. Charles M. Eastman and Anastassios Siabiris, "A Generic Building Project Model Incorporating Building Type Information," Automation in Construction 3, no. 4 (1995): 283-304, quoted in Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004), 158.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Eastman and Siabiris, "Generic Building Project Model,", 158.


Kalay, Yehuda E. Architecture's New Media: Principles, Theories and Methods of Computer-Aided Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004.  

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Learning Advisors team for help.

Referencing Books

This page contains examples of how to reference books and book sections, both print and electronic. 

Note: Generally, commas are used in footnotes & short footnotes; full-stops are used in bibliography entries.

One Author

Long Footnote

  1. Tom Dyckhoff, The Age of Spectacle: The Rise and Fall of Iconic Architecture (London: Windmill Books, 2018), 131.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Dyckhoff, Age of Spectacle, 131.

Note: Remove 'A' or 'The' at the front of titles for a short footnote.


Dyckhoff, Tom. The Age of Spectacle: The Rise and Fall of Iconic Architecture. London: Windmill Books, 2018.

Note: The surname goes first in the Bibliography record.

Two to Three Authors

Long Footnote

   1. Isabel Kuhl, Kristina Lowis, and Sabine Thiel-Siling50 Architects You Should Know (Munich: Prestel, 2008), 85.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Kuhl, Lowis, and Thiel-Siling, 50 Architects You Should Know, 85.


Kuhl, Isabel, Kristina Lowis, and Sabine Thiel-Siling.  50 Architects You Should Know. Munich: Prestel, 2008.

Note: The first author gets inverted (surname first), but not the second and third in the Bibliography record.

Four or more Authors

Long Footnote

   1. David Wright et al., The Passive Solar Primer: Sustainable Architecture (Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 2008), 37.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Wright et al., Passive Solar Primer, 37.

Note: Give the first author followed by et al.


Wright, David, Jeffrey Cook, Dennis A. Andrejko, and Gregory J. Wolters.  The Passive Solar Primer: Sustainable Architecture. Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 2008.

Note: The first author gets inverted (surname first), but not other authors.  List all authors for up to ten authors.  If more than ten authors, list the first seven then, et al.


Book with Corporate author/Organisation as Author

Long Footnote

   1. John Wardle Architects, This Building Likes Me (Port Melbourne, VIC: Thames & Hudson Australia, 2016), 239.

Shortened Footnote

   2. John Wardle Architects, This Building Likes Me239. 


John Wardle Architects. This Building Likes MePort Melbourne, VIC: Thames & Hudson Australia, 2016.


Edited Book

Long Footnote

   1. Stephen Wheeler and Timothy Beatley eds., Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 3rd ed. (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2014), 493.

Shortened Footnote

    2. Wheeler and Beatley, Sustainable Urban Development Reader493.

Note: the Shortened Footnote does not include 'ed.' or 'eds.' (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., Section 14.23, p. 753)


Wheeler, Stephen, and Timothy Beatley eds. Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 3rd ed. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2014.

Note: This example also shows how to handle a book that is not the first edition.


Chapter from a Book

Chapter from a book written by the same author/s as the whole book

Long Footnote

   1, Marian Keeler and Bill Burke, "Energy Efficient Building Design: Residential and Small Commercial Buildings," in Fundamentals of Integrated Design for Sustainable Building (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007), 107.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Keeler and Burke, "Energy Efficient Building Design," 107.


Keeler, Marian, and Bill Burke. "Energy Efficient Building Design: Residential and Small Commercial Buildings." In Fundamentals of Integrated Design for Sustainable Building, 103-121, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007. 


Keeler, Marian, and Bill Burke. "Energy Efficient Building Design: Residential and Small Commercial Buildings." Chap. 11 in Fundamentals of Integrated Design for Sustainable Building. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2007.

Note: 1. If you are citing several chapters in an edited book, your bibliography citation entry can be for the whole edited book, rather than the chapter.  (See Edited book for the format.)


Chapter from an Edited Book (where each chapter has separate author/s)

Long Footnote

   1.  Ian Lockhead and Paul Walker, “New Zealand and the Pacific," in Architecture and Urbanism in the British Empire, ed. G. A. Bremner (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 358.

Shortened Footnote

    2. Lockhead and Walker, "New Zealand and the Pacific," 358.


Lockhead, Ian, and Paul Walker. “New Zealand and the Pacific." In Architecture and Urbanism in the British Empire, edited by G. A. Bremner. 356-392. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.  

Notes: 1. If known, use the full first name of the editor or translator.  2. If you are citing several chapters from one author in an edited book, your bibliography citation entry can be for the whole edited book, rather than the chapter.  (See Edited book for the format.)


Electronic Books

Book from an E-book database

Long Footnote

   1. Gerard Blanchet and Bertrand DupouyComputer Architecture (London: ISTE, 2013), 60, ProQuest Ebook Central Ebook

Shortened Footnote

   2. Blanchet and Dupouy, Computer Architecture, 60.  


​Blanchet, Gerard, and Bertrand Dupouy. Computer Architecture. London: ISTE, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central Ebook.

 Book from the internet

Long Footnote

   1. Anne Rademacher, Building Green: Environmental Architects and the Struggle for Sustainability in Mumbai. (Oakland: University of California Press, 2017), 126,

Shortened Footnote

   2. Rademacher, Building Green, 126.


Rademacher, Anne. Building Green: Environmental Architects and the Struggle for Sustainability in Mumbai. Oakland: University of California Press, 2017.

Note: The URL should be a stable URL.  If an e-book from the Internet has a DOI, use it instead of a URL (See Referencing Journal Articles for more information about DOIs)


Translated Book

Long Footnote

   1. Pierre von Meiss, Elements of Architecture: From Form to Place + Tectonics, 2nd ed., trans. Theo Hakola (Lausanne, Switzerland: EPFL, 2013), 91.

Shortened Footnote

    2. von Meiss, Elements of Architecture, 91.


von Meiss, Pierre. Elements of Architecture: From Form to Place + Tectonics, 2nd ed. Translated by Theo Hakola. Lausanne, Switzerland: EPFL, 2013.


Publisher and Publication Place Rules


Always give the full publisher name, unless the book is published before 1900, in which case the publisher is not required (but place of publication and date are required.)

(The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.127, 813).

Publication Place

If the place of publication is very well known (e.g. New York, London, Los Angeles), then you only need to enter the city.j

If the place of publication is less well known or is different to the one that people would expect: 

(a) For US places, use the approved 2-letter state abbreviation (e.g. Englewood Cliffs, NJ)

(b) For Canadian places, use the approved 2-letter proviince abbreviation, plus the country name (e.g. Ottawa, ON, Canada)

(c) For Australian places, use the approved state abbreviation, plus the country name (e.g. Melbourne, VIC, Australia)

(Murdoch Unversity, Chicago-Referencing Guide: Abbreviations -

(d) For all other places, use the country name (e.g. Auckland, New Zealand)

* If the state, province or country name is in the publisher name, you only need to enter the city

* If there is no place of publication, you can put n.p..  If the publication places can be surmised, you can give it with a question mark in brackets (e.g. [Lake Bluff, IL?]

(The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., sections 10.27-28, pp. 583-584 & sections 14.130-132, pp.813-814).

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.