Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

A guide to the latest version of Chicago Referencing

Things to remember

Authors' names :

FootnotesAll authors' names should be First Name, Initial, Surname  e.g. Eliza T. Dresang.

Bibliography: First author should be inverted as Surname, First Name, Initial e.g.  Burnett, Kathleen. Additional authors should be First Name, Initial,, Surname  e.g. Burnett, Kathleen and Eliza T. Dresang.

 

Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book, the format for the editors' names should be the same as for an author in both the footnote and the bibliography. If, however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editor's name should be First Name, Initial, Surname. eg. edited by Paul M. Angle and Mary Stewart van Leeuwen 

 

Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics but should be surrounded by quote marks "....".

 

Capitalization : All major words in titles and subtitles should be capitalized.

 

Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems. URL links should not be live/linked, though Word makes them so as a default (to avoid this right click on the live link and select "Remove Hyperlink".)

 

Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If a book or journal article quotes another work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.  (Note: Postgraduate students should try to source the original information source whenever possible.)

The basic format for the footnote is to put a citation for the original source, then 'quoted in' and a full reference for the source read.  The bibliography citation should be for the source you actually read.  

Example (Citing a book where the author has cited another author's article.)

e.g. Eastman and Siabiris state that "this is the case in systems like EDM"

Long Footnote

   1. Charles M. Eastman and Anastassios Siabiris, "A Generic Building Project Model Incorporating Building Type Information," Automation in Construction 3, no. 4 (1995): 283-304, quoted in Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004), 158.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Eastman and Siabiris, "Generic Building Project Model,", 158.

Bibliography:  

Kalay, Yehuda E. Architecture's New Media: Principles, Theories and Methods of Computer-Aided Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004.  

Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes

The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.  

The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.

Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.  

If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Student Learning & Achievement team for help.

Referencing Journal Articles

This page gives examples for how to reference print and electronic journals.

Note: For information on how to handle multiple authors, see the 'Referencing Books' tab.

In Chicago, you should enter both volume and issue number whenever possible, even if a journal is paginated continually through a year.  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.171, 820).

Article from an Electronic Journal in a Database e.g. EBSCO  - most common option

Article with a DOI

Use the DOI

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. It is a more secure and permanent link to an article, than a URL  Most articles from the last 10 years or so will have a DOI, especially in Architecture.

Long Footnote

   1. Saidad Nazidizaji, Ana Tomé and Francisco Regateiro, "Does the Smartest Designer Design Better?: Effect of Intelligence Quotient on Students' Design Skills in Architectural Design Studio," Frontiers of Architectural Research 4, no. 4 (2015): 320, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2015.08.002. 

Shortened Footnote

   2. Nazidizaji, Tomé and Regateiro, "Effect of Intelligence Quotient on Students' Design Skills," 320.

Note: The short title does not have to be the first few words of the title of the article but can be the most significant words that sum up what the article is about  The above example does this.

Bibliography 

Nazidizaji, Saidad, Ana Tomé and Francisco Regateiro. "Does the Smartest Designer Design Better?: Effect of Intelligence Quotient on Students' Design Skills in Architectural Design Studio." Frontiers of Architectural Research 4, no. 4 (2015): 318-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foar.2015.08.002.

Note: The first author gets inverted (surname first), but not the second and third in the Bibliography record

 

Article without a DOI

Use a permalink or stable URL to the article or give the database name

Long Footnote

   1. Mirko Zardini, "A Crisis That Made Architecture Real," Perspecta 42 (2010): 80. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/41679223.

Shortened Footnote

   2.. Zardini, "Crisis That Made Architecture Real," 80.

Bibliography 

Zardini, Mirko. "A Crisis That Made Architecture Real." Perspecta 42 (2010): 79-82. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/41679223

‚ÄčNote: The surname goes first in the Bibliography record.

 

Article from the Internet

Article with a DOI

Use the DOI

Long Footnote

   1. Brent Sturlaugson, "What You Don't See," Places (September 2018), https://doi.org/10.22269/180918.

Shortened Footnote

   2. Sturlaugson, "What You Don't See,".

Bibliography 

Sturlaugson, Brent. "What You Don't See." Places (September 2018). https://doi.org/10.22269/180918

Notes: 1) In this case, this is an online journal that does not have volume and issue numbers. In this situation, to assist with discovery you should add the month together with the year.  If there is a volume and issue number you should still put them in, the month is then not needed. 

2) There is no page number in the above reference as the journal is not paginated.

 

Article without a DOI

Use a permalink or stable URL to the article or give the database name

Long Footnote

   1. Richard Graves, "A Social Ecological Ethic for Architecture," Journal of Architecture and Construction 1, no. 4 (2018): 31, https://www.sryahwapublications.com/journal-of-architecture-and-construction/pdf/v1-i4/4.pdf.

Shortened Footnote

    2.  Graves, "Social Ecological Ethic," 31.

Bibliography 

Graves, Richard. "A Social Ecological Ethic for Architecture." Journal of Architecture and Construction 1, no. 4 (2018): 27-35. https://www.sryahwapublications.com/journal-of-architecture-and-construction/pdf/v1-i4/4.pdf.

 

Article from a Print Journal

Article with a DOI

Use the DOI

Long Footnote

   1. Monique Webber, "Monstrosity and the Judgement of Architecture in Seicento and Settecento Rome," Fabrications: The Journal of The Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand 22, no. 2 (2012): 260, https://doi.org/10.1080/10331867.2012.733163.

Footnote

   1. Webber, "Monstrosity and the Judgement of Architecture," 260.

Bibliography 

Webber, Monique. "Monstrosity and the Judgement of Architecture in Seicepto and Settecento Rome." Fabrications: The Journal of The Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand 22, no. 2 (2012): 257-274. https://doi.org/10.1080/10331867.2012.733163.

 

Article without a DOI

Long Footnote

   1. Tony Fry. "Archineering in Chinatime," Architectural Theory Review: Journal of the Department of Architecture, University of Sydney 6, no. 1 (2001): 44. 

Shortened Footnote

   2. Fry, "Archineering in Chinatime," 44.

Bibliography 

Fry, Tony. "Archineering in Chinatime." Architectural Theory Review: Journal of the Department of Archtecture, University of Sydney 6, no. 1 (2001): 33-47. 

Important notes to be aware of

Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)

Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote.  In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged.  You should use a short footnote  (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).

Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author

In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author.  In Chicago 17th, you should not do this.  Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.