Long Footnotes & Shortened Footnotes
The referencing examples provided include a Long Footnote, a Shortened Footnote and a Bibliography entry.
The first time you cite a source (book, website, journal article etc.), you should use a Long Footnote.
Any subsequent times you cite that source, you can use a Short Footnote.
If you need assistance with Chicago referencing, please get in touch with the Student Learning & Achievement team for help.
What if I don't have all the required information?
While referencing you will come across material that has some of the normal referencing elements missing (e.g. no date of publication, no author etc.). When this happens you may need to change your reference slightly. Below are some examples of what you may need to do.
Architecture at Unitec Rocks!. Auckland, New Zealand: Unitec Institute of Technology, 2019.
No Publication Date
Doe, John. Architecture at Unitec Rocks!. Auckland New Zealand: Unitec Institute of Technology, n.d.
No Place of Publication
Doe, John. Architecture at Unitec Rocks!. n.p.: Unitec Institute of Technology, 2019.
No Publisher's Details
Doe, John. Architecture at Unitec Rocks!. Auckland, New Zealand, 2019.
Please be aware of the following important note when using Chicago Referencing (17th ed.)
Note 1: Don't use Ibid in Chicago 17th
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use Ibid (from the Latin ibidem meaning "in the same place") when you are citing a source that is the same as the immediate previous footnote. In Chicago 17th, this is discouraged. You should use a short footnote (The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed., section 14.34, 759).
Note 2: Don't use the 3-em dash for multiple works by one author
In Chicago 16th edition and earlier, it was ok to use a 3-em dash (------) in your Bibliography list if you had multiple works by one author. In Chicago 17th, you should not do this. Instead, you should list the author's name/s for all bibliography citation entries.