APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Referencing Art Work

This tab is for referencing art works.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'

The advice below is for Unitec undergraduate assignments.  Postgraduate students & staff, If you are completing theses or an article/book chapter etc. that will be published, please see the section at the bottom of this page.

Important: For artworks. a descriptor is needed after the title.  These go in square brackets.  Common descriptors are:



You can add more information to the descriptor if need be.


[Sculpture from resin]


Own artwork

 For your own artwork, no reference in your Reference list is required.  Insert your image into your assignment and put a short in-text citation beneath it.  


In-text citation Epiphany [Sculpture]

OR for greater clarity that the artwork is your own:

In-text citation Epiphany [Sculpture]. Author.


Art work (in a museum/gallery)

Image available online 

Reference List

Dashper, J. (1988). Party at the Mondrian Hotel [Painting]. Auckland Art Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand. https://www.aucklandartgallery.com/explore-art-and-ideas/artwork/15604/party-at-the-mondrian-hotel

In-text citation (Dashper, 1988)


With no image available

Reference List

Barye, A. L. (1850). Jaguar devouring a hare [Sculpture]. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD. 

In-text citation  (Barye, 1850)

(Notes: 1) If the artist is unknown, move the title of the art work into the author position;  2) If the exact date is not known, use an approximate date.  You can also use decades or centuries)


Barbarian statue [Sculpture]. (ca. 450 A.D.) British Museum, London, England. 


Postgraduate Students & Staff - Copyright requirements

If you are inserting an image of an artwork into a thesis or published publication, you need to get permission to use that source.  Once you have that permission, you can add to the end of the Note: beneath your figure: Reprinted with permission OR Adapted with permission.  Alternatively, if you are using a Creative Commons image, insert the details of the relevant license.

Things to remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).

Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.

Capitalisation: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

Splitting a URL: If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of the URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

Secondary Sources: You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work that you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he paraphrases Taylor - "Taylor identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.  New to APA 7th, include the date of the original work.  

Reference List

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. Routledge.

In-text citation

Taylor (1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2) identifies hooliganism as a response to social control.  

OR  .... one view is that hooliganism is a response to social control (Taylor, 1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)