APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Missing details...

While referencing you will come across certain material that has some of the normal referencing elements missing, ie no date of publication, no author etc. When this hapens you may need to change your reference slightly. Below are some examples of what you may need to do.


No Author/ Editor

For a book, brochure or report

Reference List 

College bound seniors. (1979). College Board Press.

In text citation (College bound seniors, 1979).


For an article, chapter of a book or web page

Reference List 

Burst watermain leaves suburb dry. (2005, Jun 21). The New Zealand Herald. p. A4.

First In text citation ("Burst watermain leaves suburb dry", 2005)=
Subsequent in text citation ("Burst watermain", 2005).


No Publication Date

Reference List 

Baggins, B. (n.d.). There and back again: A hobbit's tale. Hobbiton: Shire Press.

In text citation (Baggins, n.d.).


No Publisher's Details

Reference List 

Baggins, B. (1970). There and back again: A hobbit's tale. Hobbiton: (n.p.).

In text citation (Baggins, 1970).


Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial,

e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg.

In S. J. Walker (Ed).


Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.


Capitalization: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first leter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless is is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)