APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Referencing Journal Articles

At the end of your assignment, essay, or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title, and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'.


Journal Article from an Electronic source

Article with DOI:

DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. Many databases and websites assign them to each article they have, especially for articles published after about 2010. However, not all databases or websites assign DOIs to their articles.

Reference List

Wheaton, B., Roy, G., & Olive, R. (2017). Exploring critical alternatives for youth development through lifestyle sport surfing and community development in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Sustainability, 9(12), 2298-2313. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122298

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Wheaton et al., 2017)       If quoting:  (Wheaton et al., 2017, p. 2301)


Article without DOI from a library database:

(Nothing needed after the page numbers)

Reference List

Tyler, J. W. (2011). Safe endoscopic removal of a sharp-edged foreign body from a dog's stomach. Veterinary Medicine, 106(4), 179-182.

In-text citation 
If paraphrasing:  (Tyler, 2011)       
If quoting:  (Tyler, 2011, p. 179)


Article without DOI freely available on Internet:

Reference List

Karvenin-Niinikoski, S., Beddoe, L., Ruch, G., & Tsui, M-S. (2019). Professional supervision and professional autonomy. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 31(3), 87-96. https://anzswjournal.nz/anzsw/article/view/650

(For long URLs, you can use a URL shortener to get a shorter URL)

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Karvenin-Niinikoski et al., 2019)       If quoting:  (Karvenin-Niinikoski et al., 2019, p. 92)


Journal Article from a Print Journal

Article with DOI:

Reference List

Johnson, M. C., & Myers, A. N. (2017). Cytology of skin neoplasms. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 47(1), 85-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2016.07.006

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Johnson & Myers, 2017)       If quoting:  (Johnson & Myers, 2017, p. 102)


Article without a DOI:

Reference List

Bandara, T. (2018). Is say-on-pay the answer to executive remuneration problems in New Zealand? Company and Securities Law Journal, 36(5), 380-403.

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Bandara, 2018)       If quoting:  (Bandara, 2018, p. 382)


Advance Online Publication of a Journal Article

(Nowadays, it is quite common for publishers to put articles online on their website, prior to their publishing the article formally in a future issue.  In this situation, follow this example.)

Reference List

Schwerla, F., Daake, B., Moeckel, E., & Resch, K.-L. (2021). Osteopathic treatment of infants in their first year of life: A prospective multicenter observational study (OSTINF study). Complementary Medicine Research. Advance Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1159/000514413

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Schwerla et al., 2021)       If quoting:  (Schwerla et al., 2021, p. 5)


Journal Article in press

(An article that is in press has been accepted for a journal, but has not been formally published yet.  If the publication has been placed online in advance of formal publication, follow the example of the 'Advance Online Publication of a Journal Article' above.  Otherwise, follow the example below)

Reference List

Lidson, K. P. (in press). ......

In-text citation .

If paraphrasing:  (Lidson, in press)       If quoting:  (Lidson, in press, p. 10)



Things to remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).

Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.

Capitalisation: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

Splitting a URL: If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of the URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

Secondary Sources: You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work that you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he paraphrases Taylor - "Taylor identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.  New to APA 7th, include the date of the original work.  

Reference List

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. Routledge.

In-text citation

Taylor (1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2) identifies hooliganism as a response to social control.  

OR  .... one view is that hooliganism is a response to social control (Taylor, 1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)