APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Referencing Figures (Images, Photographs, Clip Art/Stock Images & Infographics)

This sub-tab gives examples of how to reference figures that are images, photographs, clip art/stock images & infographics)

If you are referencing a Table, please see the Referencing Tables tab.

If you are referencing a Figure that is a Graph, Chart, Diagram or Map, please see the Graphs, Charts, Diagrams, Maps etc. sub-tab.  

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'.  

The advice below is for Unitec undergraduate assignments.  Postgraduate students & staff, If you are completing theses or an article/book chapter etc. that will be published, please see the section at the bottom of this page.

Specific types of images require identification as to what they are.  These identifications go after the title.

[Photograph], [Painting], [Clip Art], [Stock Image], [Infographic]


Image/photograph you have drawn/taken yourself

Follow this style if you have drawn an image or taken a photo by yourself (with information not drawn from elsewhere).

The basic format is:

Figure (no.)

Title of figure

(The figure)

(.... drawn/taken by author)

Note: (Any further useful information about the figure) - this is optional

For example

Figure 1

A recently groomed border collie [Photograph]

(Photograph taken by author).

Note: Showing the most common black and white colours of border collies.

No entry in the Reference list

In-text citation

As explained in Figure 1,     OR    Regular grooming is an important care measure for border collies (Figure 1). 


Image/photograph/infographic you are reproducing or adapting from elsewhere and inserting into your assignment

(see below for Clip Art/Stock Photos)

The basic format is:

Figure (no.)

Title of figure

Note: Explanations to supplement or clarify information in the figure.  This may include explanations of units of measurement, symbols, abbreviations, shading, colour, etc.  From (information for type of source), Copyright year by the name of the copyright holder.

(For adapted figures, it should be "Adapted from (information for type of source)")


From a book or e-book

Figure 2

William Colenso, 1858 [photograph]

Note: William Colenso had been a pioneer in printing in Paihia since 1833 printing various Māori language texts. From The story of a treaty (2nd ed., p. 25), by C. Orange, 2013, Bridget Williams Books. Copyright 2013 by Claudia Orange.

(If the book is online and has a URL, or has a DOI - put that in brackets before the copyright statement)

Reference List

Orange, C. (2013). The story of a treaty (2nd ed.). Bridget Williams Books

In-text citation

Figure 2 is a photograph of William Colenso who....,     OR    William Colenso (Figure 2) was hoping to speak on the morning of the signing at Waitangi.


From a book or e-book chapter

Figure 3

The Bagel Garden by Martha Schwartz [Photograph]

Note: The Bagel Garden is a great example of "form follows fiction" rather than "form follows function". From "The experimental garden as an exercise of practice," by M. Halle, in E. Waugh (Ed.), Experimenting landscapes: Testing the limits of the garden (p. 136), 2016, Birkhauser. Copyright 2016 by Birkhauser Verlag GmBH

(If the book is online and has a URL, or has a DOI - put that in brackets before the copyright statement)

Reference List

Halle, M. (2016). The experimental garden as an exercise of practice. In E. Waugh (Ed.), Experimenting landscapes: Testing the limits of the garden (pp. 135-145). MIT Press

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 3,     OR    Scwartz's Bagel Garden (Figure 3) grew this new idea....


From a journal article

Figure 4

Scaffolding around Notre Dame protecting the vaults 

Note: Scaffolding around Notre Dame-de-Paris after the 2019 fire. From "Post-fire restoration of historic buildings and implications for Notre-Dame de Paris," by Y. Pratico, J. Ochsendorf, S. Holzer, & R. J. Flatt, 2020, Nature Materials, 19(8), p. 817 (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0748-y). Copyright 2020 by Nature Publishing Group.  

Reference List

Pratico, Y., Ochsendorf, J., Hozer, S., & Flatt, R. J. (2013). Post-fire restoration of historic buildings and implications for Notre-Dame deParis. Nature Materials, 19(8), 817.820. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0748-y

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 4,     OR    Scaffolding played a key part in protecting the vaults (Figure 4). 


From a website

Figure 5

Kaikoura District Council building where cross-laminated timber was used [Photograph]

Note: Designed by DesignBase. From Kaikoura District Council, Museum & Library, by DesignBase, 2017. (https://www.designbase.co.nz/projects/kaikoura-civic-building). Copyright 2017 by Design Base.

Reference List

DesignBase. (2017). Kaikoura District Council Museum & Library. https://www.designbase.co.nz/projects/kaikoura-civic-building

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 5,     OR    Cross-laminated timber was a key part of the new Kaikoura District Council building (Figure 5). 


From a proprietary information source that is not publicly available (e.g. inhouse guidelines)

Figure 6

Example of types of meat fed to the lions [Photograph]

Note: Shows the range of meats fed to the lions. From Auckland Zoopersonal communication, April 20, 2022. Copyright 2022 by Auckland Zoo. 

No entry in the reference list

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 6,     OR   The lions are fed twice a day (Figure 6).


Clip Art & Stock Images

How to reference Clip art & Stock Images depends on whether attribution and a Copyright Statement is required.  If the clip art is not referred to in the text as a figure but is just decoration (say on PowerPoint slides), then no reference is required.  To find attriburtion-free clip art & stock images, include 'no attribution' as a keyword in a Google search.

No attribution required

Clip Art from software programs such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Powerpoint, freely available emoticons and most clip art/stock images websites that allow use of clip art freely without attribution only require the following:
Figure 7

Lion [Clip Art]

Note: animated image of a lion (having a note is optional)

No entry in the reference list

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 7,     OR    This clip art image of a lion (Figure 7) shows that....


Figure 8

Cape Reinga [Stock Image]

Note: Cape Reinga is the most spiritual place for Māori in New Zealand. Photo by Ethan Brooke. (having a note is optional but it's good practice to acknowledge the creator of the stock image)

No entry in the reference list

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 8,     OR    Cape Reinga (Figure 8) is a special place for Māori.


Attribution required

Follow this format if the place you got that clip art or stock image from says that you must give an acknowledgement (e.g. Flickr.)

Figure 9

Lava the sled dog [Stock Image]

Note: From Lava [Stock Image], by Denali National Park and Reserve, 2013, Flickr. (https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/). CC BY 2.0

(This image is a Creative Commons image - i.e. the creator of the photo has allowed it to be used by others but attribution and a link to the relevant Creative Commons licence are required.  Please see the format above.)

Reference List

Denali National Park & Reserve. (2013). Lava [Stock Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/.

In-text citation

As shown in Figure 9,     OR    Sled dogs like Lava are essential for transport in Alaska (Figure 9). 



Reference these according to the format above according to where you got the infographic from.  Put [Infographic] after the title.  


Referencing an Image/Photograph that you have not inserted into your assignment?

If you are referring to an image or graph that you have not reproduced in your assignment, do your in-text citation as per the source of the image or graph you are using (e.g. book, journal article, web page).  (Note: if you can replicate the figure in your assignment, you should)e.g. (for an online e-book)

Reference List

Skinner, S. (2004). Feng Shui style: The Asian art of gracious living. Periplus Editions.

In-text citation

...a great representation of Feng Shui as shown in the bathroom at the country estate St Anne's Court (Skinner, 2004, p. 87).


Postgraduate Students & Staff - Copyright Requirements

If you are inserting a figure into a thesis or published publication, you need to get permission to use that image, photograph etc. Once you have that permission, you should add to the end of the Note: beneath your figure: Reprinted with permission OR Adapted with permission.  If you are using a Creative Commons image, insert the details of the relevant license.  If the figure is in the public domain (i.e. out of copyright), add: In Public Domain.


Things to remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).

Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.

Capitalisation: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

Splitting a URL: If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of the URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

Secondary Sources: You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work that you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he paraphrases Taylor - "Taylor identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.  New to APA 7th, include the date of the original work.  

Reference List

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. Routledge.

In-text citation

Taylor (1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2) identifies hooliganism as a response to social control.  

OR  .... one view is that hooliganism is a response to social control (Taylor, 1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)