Figures (Images, Photographs, Clip Art/Stock Images & Infographics)
This sub-tab gives examples of how to reference figures that are images, photographs, clip art/stock images & infographics)
If you are referencing a Table, please see the Referencing Tables tab.
For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'.
The advice below is for Unitec undergraduate assignments. Postgraduate students & staff, If you are completing theses or an article/book chapter etc. that will be published, please see the section at the bottom of this page.
Specific types of images require identification as to what they are. These identifications go after the title.
[Photograph], [Painting], [Clip Art], [Stock Image], [Infographic]
Image/photograph you have drawn/taken yourself
Follow this style if you have drawn an image or taken a photo by yourself (with information not drawn from elsewhere).
The basic format is:
Title of figure
(.... drawn/taken by author)
Note: (Any further useful information about the figure) - this is optional
Auckland harbour at dawn [Photograph]
(Photograph taken by author).
Note: Showing how the sun rises over the development area in Bayswater (a note is optional)
No entry in the Reference list
As explained in Figure 1, OR The sun naturally rises to the east of the development area in Bayswater (Figure 1).
Image/photograph/infographic you are reproducing or adapting from elsewhere and inserting into your assignment
(see below for Clip Art/Stock Photos)
The basic format is:
Title of figure
Note: Explanations to supplement or clarify information in the figure. This may include explanations of units of measurement, symbols, abbreviations, shading, colour, etc. From (information for type of source), Copyright year by the name of the copyright holder.
(For adapted figures, it should be "Adapted from (information for type of source)")
From a book or e-book
A carved wooden kooauau flute [Photograph]
Note: The carving on traditional Māori instruments was often very intricate. From Maori music (p. 378), by M.McLean, Auckland University Press. Copyright 1997 by Mervyn McLean.
McLean, M. (1997). Maori music. Auckland University Press
As explained in Figure 2, OR Carving on traditional Māori instruments such as the Kooauau was intricate (Figure 2).
From a journal article
Scaffolding around Notre Dame protecting the vaults
Note: Scaffolding around Notre Dame-de-Paris after the 2019 fire. From "Post-fire restoration of historic buildings and implications for Notre-Dame de Paris", by Y. Pratico, J. Ochsendorf, S. Holzer, & R. J. Flatt, 2020, Nature Materials, 19(8), p. 817 (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0748-y). Copyright 2020 by Nature Publishing Group.
Pratico, Y., Ochsendorf, J., Hozer, S., & Flatt, R. J. (2013). Post-fire restoration of historic buildings and implications for Notre-Dame deParis. Nature Materials, 19(8), 817.820. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0748-y
As shown in Figure 3, OR Scaffolding played a key part in protecting the vaults (Figure 3).
From a website
Kaikoura District Council building where cross-laminated timber was used [Photograph]
Note: Designed by DesignBase. From Kaikoura District Council, Museum & Library, by DesignBase, 2017. (https://www.designbase.co.nz/projects/kaikoura-civic-building). Copyright 2017 by Design Base.
DesignBase. (2017). Kaikoura District Council Museum & Library.https://www.designbase.co.nz/projects/kaikoura-civic-building
As shown in Figure 4, OR Cross-laminated timber was a key part of the new Kaikoura District Council building (Figure 4).
Example of types of meat fed to the lions [Photograph]
Clip Art & Stock Images
How to reference Clip art & Stock Images depends on whether attribution and a Copyright Statement is required. If the clip art is not referred to in the text as a figure but is just decoration (say on PowerPoint slides), then no reference is required. To find attriburtion-free clip art & stock images, include 'no attribution' as a keyword in a Google search.
No attribution required
Clip Art from software programs such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Powerpoint, freely available emoticons and most clip art/stock images websites that allow use of clip art freely without attribution only require the following:
Lion [Clip Art]
Note: animated image of a lion (having a note is optional)
No entry in the reference list
As shown in Figure 6, OR This clip art image of a lion (Figure 6) shows that....
Follow this format if the place you got that clip art or stock image from says that you must give an acknowledgement (e.g. Flickr.)
Lava the sled dog [Stock Image]
Note: From Lava [photograph], by Denali National Park & Reserve, 2013, Flickr.
Denali National Park & Reserve. (2013). Lava [photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/denalinps/8639280606/
As shown in Figure 7, OR Sled dogs luke Lava are essential for transport in Alaska (Figure 7).
Reference these according to the format above according to where you got the infographic from. Put [Infographic] after the title.
Referencing an Image/Photograph that you have not inserted into your assignment?
If you are referring to an image or graph that you have not reproduced in your assignment, do your in-text citation as per the source of the image or graph you are using (e.g. book, journal article, web page). (Note: if you can replicate the figure in your assignment, you should)e.g. (for an online e-book)
...a great representation of Feng Shui as shown in the bathroom at the country estate St Anne's Court (Skinner, 2004, p. 87).
Skinner, S. (2004). Feng Shui style: The Asian art of gracious living. Periplus Editions.
Postgraduate Students & Staff - Copyright Requirements
If you are inserting a figure into a thesis or published publication, you need to get permission to use that image, photograph etc. Once you have that permission, you should add to the end of the Note: beneath your figure: Reprinted with permission OR Adapted with permission. If you are using a Creative Commons image, insert the details of the relevant license. If the figure is in the public domain (i.e. out of copyright), add: In Public Domain.
Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial. e.g. Smith, L. M.
Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.
If however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).
Italics: Only the book title should be in italics. If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.
Capitalisation: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle. Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.
Splitting a URL: If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark. Do not add a full stop at the end of the URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.
Secondary Sources: You can only reference information that you have actually seen. If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work that you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.
For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he paraphrases Taylor - "Taylor identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."
If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book. New to APA 7th, include the date of the original work.
Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. Routledge.
Taylor (1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2) identifies hooliganism as a response to social control.
OR .... one view is that hooliganism is a response to social control (Taylor, 1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)