APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Web Pages

At the end of your assignment, essay, or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title, and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'.


Web page by an individual author or authors

Reference List

Ambrosino, B. (2014, July 11). The dance styles of So You Think You Can Dance, explained. Vox. https://www.vox.com/2018/7/13/17556030/sytycd-dance-styles-guide

In-text citation  (Ambrosino, 2014).

(Note: The title of the web page is in italics.  After that goes the name of the website within which the web page exists (in regular text) - in this case "Vox".  For a website by an individual author or authors, put the full date, if known.)


Web page with corporate author (i.e. company/organisation)

Reference List

Employment New Zealand. (2020). Managing performance issues. https://www.employment.govt.nz/workplace-policies/employee-performance/managing-performance-issues/

In-text citation  (Employment New Zealand, 2020).


Web page with no author

Reference List

Paroxetine. (2018). Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/paroxetine-oral-tablet

In-text citation  (Paroxetine, 2018).


Web page with no date

Reference List

Buildsafe (n.d.). Some hints to avoid building contract disasters.  

In-text citation  (Buildsafe, n.d.).


Online report

See the entry on the Referencing Reports tab.


Online magazine or newspaper article

See the entry on the Referencing Magazines or Newspapers tab.


Online Encyclopedia entry

Reference List

Clute, J. (2020). Tolkien, J R R. In J. Clute, D. Langford, P. Nicholls, & G. Sleight (Eds.). The encyclopedia of science fiction (3rd ed.). Retrieved August 5, 2020, from http://www.sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/tolkien_j_r_r

In-text citation (Clute, 2020).

(If the entry states the date it was last updated, make the year of that last update as the publication year.  Include a retrieved date if the encyclopedia is updated regularly.)


Online Dictionary

Reference List

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Coronavirus. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved August 3, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/coronavirus

In-text citation (Merriam-Webster, n.d.).

(Online dictionaries are typically regularly updated.  Use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date)



Reference List

Graphic design. (2020, August 4). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphic_design

In-text citation ("Graphic design," 2020).

(A wiki, such as Wikipedia, is a website that anyone can contribute to, by writing, reviewing, or editing an entry.  Use the full date as a wiki is frequently updated)


Blog Posts

When referencing a blog you should use the Author's full name if this is available, list the last name first followed by initials, Smith, A. A.. If only a screen name is available, use that. The date should be the date that the blog was posted NOT the date you viewed it.


Blog Post

Reference List

Brooks, M. (2020, May 1). Surveying in the time of COVID-19. A life without limits. https://www.alifewithoutlimits.com.au/blog/surveying-in-the-time-of-covid-19/

In-text citation (Brooks, 2020).


Blog comment

This would be a response to a blog post

Reference List

Gonzalo, F. (2019, January 10). I am not sure how long TikTok will stay in the limelight, but I agree it's platform brands need to. [Comment on the article "All the cool kids are on TikTok. Here's a plan for you and your business!".] Grow. http://disq.us/p/25vsob1

In-text citation (Gonzalo, 2019).

(If the commenter is using an online username, you can use that.  Provide the comment title up to the first 20 words of the comment.  If you can, link to the comment itself.  You can shorten the comment URL if need be.)

Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Italics : The name of a stand-alone web page should not be in italics.  If referencing an entry in a larger work, such as an online encyclopedia or dictionary, the title of the book should be in italics but the title of the entry should not.


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)