APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Referencing Web Pages and other online resources

At the end of your assignment, essay, or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title, and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'.

 

Web page by an individual author or authors

Reference List

Ambrosino, B. (2014, July 11). The dance styles of So You Think You Can Dance, explained. Vox. https://www.vox.com/2018/7/13/17556030/sytycd-dance-styles-guide

(Note: The title of the web page is in italics.  After that goes the name of the website within which the web page exists (in regular text) - in this case "Vox".  For a website by an individual author or authors, put the full date, if known.)

In-text citation  

If paraphrasing:  (Ambrosino, 2014)       If quoting:  (Ambrosino, 2014) OR (Ambrosino, 2014, para. 3)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Web page with corporate author (i.e. company/organisation)

Reference List

Employment New Zealand. (2020). Managing performance issues. https://www.employment.govt.nz/workplace-policies/employee-performance/managing-performance-issues/

In-text citation  

If paraphrasing:  (Employment New Zealand, 2020)   If quoting:  (Employment New Zealand, 2020) OR (Employment New Zealand, 2020, para. 5)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Web page with no author

Reference List

Paroxetine. (2018). Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/paroxetine-oral-tablet

In-text citation  

If paraphrasing:  (Paroxetine, 2018)       If quoting:  (Paroxetine, 2018) OR (Paroxetine, 2018, para. 2)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Web page with no date

Reference List

Buildsafe (n.d.). Some hints to avoid building contract disasters.  
https://www.buildsafe.co.nz/Resources/BRIEFINGS/SOME+HINTS+TO+AVOID+BUILDING+CONTRACT+DISASTERS.html

In-text citation  

If paraphrasing:  (Buildsafe, n.d.)       If quoting:  (Buildsafe, n.d.) OR (Buildsafe, n.d., para.9)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Online report

See the entry on the Referencing Reports tab.

 

Online magazine, newspaper or Online news article (e.g. from CNN, Newsroom, Stuff)

See the entry on the Referencing Magazines or Newspapers tab.

 

Online video

See the entry on the Referencing Audio-Visual Works tab.

Online Encyclopedia entry

Reference List

Clute, J. (2020). Tolkien, J R R. In J. Clute, D. Langford, P. Nicholls, & G. Sleight (Eds.). The encyclopedia of science fiction (3rd ed.). Retrieved August 5, 2020, from http://www.sf-encyclopedia.com/entry/tolkien_j_r_r

(If the entry states the date it was last updated, make the year of that last update as the publication year.  Include a retrieved date if the encyclopedia is updated regularly.)

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Clute, 2020)       If quoting:  (Clute, 2020) OR (Clute, 2020, para. 1)

Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39

 

Online Dictionary

Reference List

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Coronavirus. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved August 3, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/coronavirus
(Online dictionaries are typically regularly updated.  Use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date)

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)       If quoting:  (Merriam-Webster, n.d.) OR (Merriam-Webster, n.d., para. 1)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Wiki

Reference List

Graphic design. (2020, August 4). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphic_design

(A wiki, such as Wikipedia, is a website that anyone can contribute to, by writing, reviewing, or editing an entry.  Use the full date as a wiki is frequently updated)

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  ("Graphic design," 2020)       If quoting:  ("Graphic design," 2020) OR ("Graphic design," 2020, para. 4)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

Blog Posts

When referencing a blog you should use the Author's full name if this is available, list the last name first followed by initials, Smith, A. A.. If only a screen name is available, use that. The date should be the date that the blog was posted NOT the date you viewed it.

 

Blog Post

Reference List

Brooks, M. (2020, May 1). Surveying in the time of COVID-19. A life without limits. https://www.alifewithoutlimits.com.au/blog/surveying-in-the-time-of-covid-19/

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Brooks, 2020)       If quoting:  (Brooks, 2020) OR (Brooks, 2020, para. 2)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Blog comment

This would be a response to a blog post

Reference List

Gonzalo, F. (2019, January 10). I am not sure how long TikTok will stay in the limelight, but I agree it's platform brands need to. [Comment on the article "All the cool kids are on TikTok. Here's a plan for you and your business!".] Grow. http://disq.us/p/25vsob1

(If the commenter is using an online username, you can use that.  Provide the comment title up to the first 20 words of the comment.  If you can, link to the comment itself.  You can shorten the comment URL if need be.)

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Gonzalo, 2019)       If quoting:  (Gonzalo, 2019) OR (Gonzalo, 2019, para. 4)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

Online Forums (e.g. Reddit, Quora)

When referencing an Online Forum post or Online Forum comment you should use the Author's full name if this is available, list the last name first followed by initials, Smith, A. A.. If only a screen name is available, use that. The date should be the date that the blog was posted NOT the date you viewed it.

 

Online Forum Post

Reference List

Stayart, B. (2014). Marius, the immortal [Online forum post]. Quora. https://mariustheimmortal.quora.com/

(In this case, we don't know what date in 2014 as Quora doesn't tell us)

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Stayart, 2014)       If quoting:  (Stayart, 2014) OR (Stayart, 2014, para. 1)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

OR

Reference List

j450n_l. (2018, December 12). I'm the first person in the world with a neural-enabled prosthetic. Using a specialised prosthetitic hand. Using a specialised prosthetic [Online forum post]. Reddit.  https://www.reddit.com/r/AMA/comments/a5jxbe/im_the_first_person_in_the_world_with_a/

(If the commenter is using an online username, you can use that.  Provide the comment title up to the first 20 words of the comment.  If you can, link to the comment itself.  You can shorten the comment URL if need be.)

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (j450n_l, 2018)       If quoting:  (j450n_l, 2018) OR (j450n_l, 2018, para. 2)

(Note: if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require for the in-text citation.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

 

 

Online Forum comment

This would be a response to an Online Forum post

Reference List

Ojeda, M.. (2022, March 2). The reason Russia would want to invade Ukraine is to depose the pro Western Ukrainian president and install a pro. [Comment on the Online Forum post Why is Russia invading Ukraine?]. Quora. https://www.quora.com/Why-is-Russia-invading-Ukraine

(Provide the comment text up to the first 20 words of the comment.  If you can, link to the comment itself.  You can shorten the comment URL if need be.)

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Ojeda, 2022)       If quoting:  (Ojeda, 2022) or (Ojeda, 2022, para. 2)

(Note: for the in-text citation if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

OR

Reference List

kentsor. (2021). Sad? Why? Zoos aim to maintain the highest genetic diversity, and he was a common type. He served to educate [Comment on the Online Forum post TIL that Marius, a giraffe bred at Copenhagen Zoo was euthanized and public dissercted at 2 years of age because they didn't.]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/todayilearned/comments/q2cnnk/til_that_marius_a_giraffe_bred_at_copenhagen_zoo/

(In this case, we don't know what date in 2014 as Reddit doesn't tell us.  Provide the comment text up to the first 20 words of the comment.  If you can, link to the comment itself.  You can shorten the comment URL if need be.)

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (kentsor, 2021)             If quoting:  (kentsor, 2021) OR (kentsor, 2021, para. 2)

(Note: for the in-text citation if you are quoting, please check with your lecturer what they require.  Most web pages do not have page numbers.  You can use the paragraph number instead (counting from the top of the page).  If the web page does have page numbers, use the page number for quoting - e.g. p. 39)

Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

 

Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.

 

Italics : The name of a stand-alone web page should not be in italics.  If referencing an entry in a larger work, such as an online encyclopedia or dictionary, the title of the book should be in italics but the title of the entry should not.

 

Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

 

Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

 

Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)