APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Web Pages

At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.


Web page

Lee, J. (1997). Kinship and family ties. Retrieved from http://www.postcolonialweb.org/nz/maorijlg2b.html

In-text citation  (Lee, 1997)


Web page with corporate author

Ministry of Health. (1997). Kinship and family ties. Retrieved from http://www.postcolonialweb.org/nz/maorijlg2b.html

In-text citation  (Ministry of Health, 1997)


Web page with no author

Kinship and family ties. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.postcolonialweb.org/nz/maorijlg2b.html

In-text citation  ("Kinship and family ties," 1997)


Web page with no date

Lee, J. (n.d.). Kinship and family ties. Retrieved from http://www.postcolonialweb.org/nz/maorijlg2b.html

In-text citation  (Lee, n.d.)


Online Government Report

See the entry on the Reports tab.


Online Encyclopedia

Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-business/

In-text citation (Marcoux, 2008)


Online Dictionary

Ignition. (1989). In Oxford English online dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed.com

In-text citation ("Ignition," 1989)



A wiki (such as wikipedia) is a website that any one can contribute to, by writing, reviewing or editing an entry.

Stress testing. (2008). Retrieved October 15, 2008, from Wikipedia: http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_test

In-text citation ("Stress testing," 2008)


Blog Posts

When referencing a blog you should use the Author's full name if this is available, list the last name first followed by initials, Smith, A. A.. If only a screen name is available use that. The date should be the date that the blog was posted NOT the date you viewed it.


Blog Post

Myers, P. Z. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogspharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequistes.php

In-text citation (Myers, 2007)


Blog comment

This would be a response to a blog post

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). RE: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2007/01/the_unfortunate_prerequistes.php

In-text citation (MiddleKid, 2007)

Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Italics : The name of a stand-alone web page should not be in italics.  If referencing an entry in a larger work, such as an online encyclopedia or dictionary, the title of the book should be in italics but the title of the entry should not.


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)