APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Other material


To be used for material handed out in a lecture that has not been published in another format, ie not a book chapter or journal article.

Unitec. (2007). GDHE EDUC 7782 The literature review: A few tips on conducting it. Auckland, New Zealand: Author.

In-text citation (Unitec, 2007)



To be used when lecturers' course notes are posted in Moodle in an ebook format. If you are using multiple sections of an ebook then you will need to put the page numbers in the in-text citation after the year, to differentiate between them. If there are no page numbers, use section numbers instead.

Salinsky, J., Gussey, A., & Ladyman, R. (2013). NSCI4711-SB Veterinary anaesthetic and analgesic procedures ebook. Retrieved from moodle.unitec.ac.nz

First In-text citation (Salinsky, Gussey, & Ladyman, 2013, s2.1)
Subsequent in-text citation (Salinsky et al, 2013, s3.4)



Journal article

Brundrett, M., Fitzgerald, T., & Sommerfeldt, D. (2006). The creation of national programmes of school leadership development in England and New Zealand: A comparative study. International Studies in Educational Administration, 34(1), 89-105. Retrieved from http://www.coda.ac.nz/unitec_edu_jo/8/

First in-text citation (Brundrett, Fitzgerald, & Sommerfeldt, 2006)
Subsequent in-text citation (Brundrett, et al., 2006).


Thesis from an Institutional Repository

Dykstra, L. (2007). Aqua house: A house design that explores the possibility of integrating architecture and water, technically and aesthetically. (Unpublished masters dissertation). Unitec. Retrieved from http://unitec.researchbank.ac.nz/handle/10652/2070

In-text citation (Dykstra, 2007).



PowerPoint taken from Moodle (no author)

Unitec. (2007). GDHE EDUC 7782 The literature review: A few tips on conducting it [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from http://moodle.unitec.ac.nz

In-text citation (Unitec, 2007)


PowerPoint taken from Moodle (with authors)

Chambers, S., Wessels, A. & Emerson, A. (2015). NSCI4703-SA/B Communications and group project start up. [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from http://moodle.unitec.ac.nz

In-text citation (Chambers, Wessels, & Emerson, 2015)


PowerPoint taken from the Internet

tutor2u. (n.d.). Commodities market [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/presentations/aseconomics/markets/CommodityMarkets/default.html

In-text citation (tutor2u, n.d.)



New Zealand Government. (2012). Earthquake recovery strategy launched [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/earthquake-recovery-strategy-launched

In-text citation (New Zealand Government, 2012)



Bland, P. (2005, June 27). Sorry, I'm a stranger here myself. (Narr by Peter Bland). [Radio series episode] In Nine to noon with Linda Clark. [Radio Broadcast]. Wellington, New Zealand: National Radio, Radio New Zealand.

In-text citation (Bland, 2005).



Phone calls, personal interviews, letters and emails should not be included in the final reference list according to APA guidelines. Cite them only in the text itself in parenthesis. (See page 179 of Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., for more information).

In-text citation (J. T. Smith, personal communication, September 29, 2012)



Gatley, D. (1999). Design management in architecture: The management of the creative process during the design stages of a project in an architectural practice in New Zealand. (Unpublished masters dissertation). Unitec Insitute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

In-text citation (Gatley, 1999)




Standards New Zealand. (2011). Timber-framed buildings (NZS 3604:2011). Retrieved from https://shop.standards.govt.nz


Standards Australia. (2015). Industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances (AS 3814:2015). Sydney, NSW, Australia: SAI Global

In-text citation (Standards New Zealand, 2011)

NOTE: If it is a joint standard (e.g. AS/NZ) use the first Standards publishing country (in this case, Australia). 

Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Italics : Only the book or journal title and the journal volume number should be in italics.


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In-text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)