APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Other material

Course Handout/Note

Given out in class - not on Moodle

Reference List

Unitec Institute of Technology. (2020). CIBC5015 Assignment 1: Possible resources to help you [Handout].

In-text citation (Unitec Institute of Technology, 2020).


On Moodle

(a) If notes/handouts list an author or lecturer name

Reference List

Jones, K., & Simons, R. B. (2020). TRDS7629 Week 3: Being a good employee [Course notes]. Moodle. https://moodle.unitec.ac.nz/

In-text citation (Jones & Simons, 2020).


(b) If notes/handouts list no particular author or lecturer name

Reference List

Unitec Institute of Technology. (2020). TRDS7629 Week 3: Being a good employee [Course notes]. Moodle. https://moodle.unitec.ac.nz/

In-text citation (Unitec Institute of Technology, 2020).


PowerPoint slides

On Moodle

(a) If slides list an author or lecturer name

Reference List

Thompson, B. J. (2020). ACMN4091 Business structures [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle. 

In-text citation (Thompson, 2020). or (Thompson, 2020, Slide 4).

Note: Use the second option if you are highlighting a particular slide.  


(b) If notes/handouts list no particular author or lecturer name

Reference List

Unitec Institute of Technology. (2020). ACMN4091 Business structures [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle. https://moodle.unitec.ac.nz/

In-text citation (Unitec Institute of Technology, 2020).  or (Unitec Institute of Technology, 2020, Slide 4).

Note: Use the second option if you are highlighting a particular slide.  



Reference List

Brooks, S. (2012). Early childhood education [PowerPoint slides]. Slideshare. https://www.slideshare.net/samb97/early-childhood-education-powerpoint

In-text citation (Brooks, 2012). or (Brooks, 2012, Slide 10).

Note: Use the second option if you are highlighting a particular slide.  


Thesis or Dissertation

(Note - formatting is different for each level of thesis of Dissertation)

Bachelor - [Unpublished undergraduate thesis]

Master - [Unpublished master's thesis]

Doctorate - [Unpublished doctoral dissertation])

Unpublished and in Print Only

Reference List

Wen, C. (2004). Adaptive strategy for VoIP in Auckland using forward error correction over the internet [Unpublished master's thesis]. Unitec Institute of Technology.

In-text citation (Wen, 2004).


Available online (and so published)

Reference List

Thomas, L. L. (2019). High-density parenting: Design, policy and family-oriented urbanism [Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. DSpace@MIT. https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/123908

In-text citation (Thomas, 2019).



Online from the 'New Zealand Standards Online' database that Unitec Library subscribes to.

Reference List

Standards New Zealand. (2013). Conditions of contract for building and civil engineering construction (NZS 3910:2013). https://shop-standards-govt-nz.libproxy.unitec.ac.nz/catalog/3604%3A2011%28NZS%29/view

In-text citation (Standards New Zealand, 2013)


Reference List

Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand. (2014). The storage and handling of LPG gas (AS/NZS 1596:2014). https://shop-standards-govt-nz.libproxy.unitec.ac.nz/catalog/1596%3A2014%28AS%7CNZS%29/view?client=html5

In-text citation (Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand, 2014). 

(Note: To get the correct URL, go to 'New Zealand Standards Online' on the Unitec library website, then search for the relevant standard and use that URL.  The URL from a direct link to a Standard from a subject guide is too long.  


Online - freely available (e.g. MBIE sponsored standards)

Reference List

Standards New Zealand. (2011). Timber-framed buildings (NZS 3604:2011). 

In-text citation (Standards New Zealand, 2011).



Reference List

Standards Australia. (2012). The use of ventilation and airconditioning in buildings: Part 2, mechanical ventilation in bulidings (AS 1668.2-2012).

In-text citation (Standards Australia, 2012).


Social Media

For all Social Media, note the following:

1. If the title of the post/photograph/video is longer than 20 words or there is no title, use the first 20 words.

2. You need to put a description as to the nature of what the item is and what is attached.)

3. If there are emojis or other symbols on the tweet, you can describe that emoji in separate square brackets.  This is not essential but can be included if they add to the context of the tweet.)

e.g. [paw prints emoji} [exclamation mark emoji]  (in this case, the emojis would be within the title of the tweet.  If outside, they would in regular text, not italic.  



Reference List

1News [@1NewsNZ]. (2020, August 13). CCTV footage shows Beirut blast shockwave severely damaging hospital. [Image with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. 

In-text citation (1News, 2020).


Facebook Post

Reference List

Ministry of Social Development NZ. (2020, August 11). Connected.govt.nz is a new service to help New Zealanders connect to the wide range of employment, education and training supports [Image with link attached]. Facebook..https://bit.ly/3allnWg

First in-text citation (Ministry of Social Development, 2020).

Subsequent in-text citation (MSD, 2020).


Instagram Photo or Video

Reference List

Art+Object [artandobject]. (2020, August 13). Theo Schoon 'One man's picture is another man's Rorschach test' polyvinyl acetate on board, signed and dated 1964 [Photograph]. Instagram. 

In-text citation (Art+Object, 2020).


LinkedIn post

Reference List

Kainga Ora – Homes and Communities. (2021, September 10). We are looking to create the country’s first national deconstruction panel. If you work in the sector and are interested… [Online post]. LinkedIn. https://www.linkedin.com/posts/k%C4%81inga-ora-homes-and-communities_we-are-looking-to-create-the-countrys-first-activity-6841172873219051520-DzCR/

First in-text citation (Kainga Ora - Homes and Communities, 2021)

Subsequent in-text Citation  (Kainga Ora, 2021)

(if there is a well-known abbreviation)

Note: LinkedIn does not give publication dates for posts but rather tells you how long ago the post was written.  For the date, guess the most correct date based on that 'how long ago it was published' information.  


Online Forum (e.g. Reddit)
Reference List

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I’m NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_na sa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/

In-text citation (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018).


Personal Communications

Phone calls, personal interviews, letters and emails should not be included in the final reference list according to APA guidelines.

Cite them only in the text itself in parenthesis. 

In-text citation (J. T. Smith, personal communication, September 29, 2012).   OR  In discussion, J. T. Smith (personal communication, September 29, 2012) suggested that....



Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Italics : Only the book or journal title and the journal volume number should be in italics.


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In-text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)