APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Conference Proceedings

At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.


Proceedings published as a book

Gough, P. T. (Ed.). (1991). The way forward. Proceedings from the third triennial conference of AEESEAP. Christchurch, New Zealand: University of Canterbury.

In-text citation  (Gough, 1991)


Conference Papers

From a Published book

Smith, P. L. (1999). Motivation for exercise. In R. Morgan (Ed.). Proceedings of the Conference on Health and Fitness. (pp. 258-98). London, England: University College Press.

In-text citation (Smith, 1999)


From a Journal Issue or Supplement

Smith, P. L. (1999). Motivation for exercise. Proceedings of the Conference on Health and Fitness. Journal of Health Promotion, 42(Suppl. 1). 258-98.

In-text citation (Smith, 1999)


From the Internet

Nebel, B. (2012, March). Overview and discussion of carbon footprinting standards and guidelines. Paper presented at the 2nd New Zealand Life Cycle Assessment Conference, Auckland. Retrieved from http://www.lcaconference.org.nz/proceedings

In-text citation (Nebel, 2012)

Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).


Italics : The book or journal title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a conference paper, the title of the paper should not be in italics.


Capitalization : For the title of a chapter or paper, the first letter of the first word of a should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals. For the title of the conference all major words should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)