APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Referencing Conference Papers & Posters

At the end of your assignment, essay, or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title, and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'


Important:  References for Conference papers often require the place where the conference was held.

For places in the USA, just put the city name and the state abbreviation - for example Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL

For places in Australia, Canada or other countries where common state codes are used, use the state code and the country - for example Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Calgary, AB, Canada

For places elsewhere in the world, use the city and country - for example Auckland, New Zealand; Tokyo, Japan


Conference Papers & Posters found online

(You can follow this format for most conference papers & posters that you find on the Internet.  However, if your conference paper is part of a Journal issue or supplement or in a Published Proceedings, see below)

Reference List

Mangalaraj, D. A. & Du Plessis, A. J. (2014, February 24-25). Competitive advantage in the 21st century: What are the human resource functions and activities [Paper presentation]. World Business & Economics Research Conference, Auckland, New Zealand. https://unitec.researchbank.ac.nz/handle/10652/2999

(Notes: 1. If the paper has a DOI, use that for the web address - https://doi.org/.....; 2. You can replace [Paper presentation] with [Poster presentation] or [Symposium presentation] as appropriate)

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Mangalaraj & Du Plessis, 2014)       If quoting:  (Mangalaraj & Du Plessis, 2014, p. 7)


Paper in a Journal issue or supplement

(Unless the details of the conference are included in the article title, then you can just reference this as a normal journal article.  If the details of the conference are included, make those details a subtitle.)

Reference List

Mueller, H. S., Haist, M., Moffatt, J. S., & Vogel, M. (2017). Design, material properties and structural performance of sustainable concrete. Procedia Engineering, 171, 22-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.306

In-text citation 

If paraphrasing:  (Mueller et al., 2017)       If quoting:  (Mueller et al., 2017, p. 29)


Paper from a published proceedings

(The referencing style is similar to a book chapter)

If in a published book/e-book

Reference List

Wood, B., Robertson, C., & Davies, E. (2003). Advocating for children as a population group: Three collaborative initiatives from the non-government sector. In K. Leauga, A. Paewai & K. Bethell (Eds.), Convention Proceedings: Papers presented at the 8th Early Childhood Convention - Volume 2. (pp. 283-284). Ministry of Education.

(If the book/ebook has a DOI, include that web address at the end.)

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Wood et al., 2003)       If quoting:  (Wood et al., 2003, p. 284)


If fully online

Reference List

Green C., & Turtinen, J. (2015). Indigenous peoples and world heritage sites: Normative heritage discourses and possibilities for change. In A. Boulton, B. Robson, D. Hikuroa, H. Jahnke, J. Ruru, J. Kidman, J. Te Rito, K. Morgan, L. W. Nikora, M. Brewin, T-K. KIngi, T. Johnston, & T. McIntosh (Eds.), International Indigenous Development Research Conference 2014 Proceedings (pp. 60-65). Ngā Pae o Te Maramatanga New Zealand's Maori Centre of Research Excellence. https://www.maramatanga.co.nz/media/164/download?attachment

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Green & Turtinen, 2015)    OR Green and Turtinen (2015) say...  

If quoting:  (Green & Turtinen, 2015, p. 62)    OR Green and Turtinnen (2015) say .......... (p. 62).

(Note; for two authors, if you use their names in your writing '&' changes to 'and')


Paper in a regularly updated online Proceedings

Reference List

Komatsu, K. J., Avolio, M. L., Lemoine, N. P., Isbell, F. Grman, E., Houseman, G. R., Koerner, S. E., Johnson, D. S., Wilcox, K. R., Alatalo, J. M., Anderson, J. P., Aerts, R., Baer, S. G., Baldwin, A. H., Bates, J., Beierkuhnlein, C., Belote, R. T., Blair, J., Bloor, J. M. G. . . . Zhang, Y. (2019). Global change effects on plant communities are magnified in time and the number of global change factors imposed. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(36), 17867-17873. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1819027116

In-text citation

If paraphrasing:  (Komatsu et al., 2019)       If quoting:  (Komatsu et al., 2019, p. 17867)


Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Multiple authors: The same rules apply as for books.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).


Italics : The book or journal title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a conference paper, the title of the paper should not be in italics.


Capitalization : For the title of a chapter or paper, the first letter of the first word of a should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals. For the title of the conference all major words should be capitalized.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)