The American Psychological Association referencing style is known as an "author-date" style because the author is given first, followed by the date and other information when citing in the text and in the reference list.
When using another's ideas or words in your assignment or project, you should include an in-text citation to the original work.
Example of a direct quote (of fewer than 40 words)
Gabites (2015) points out that "plants use the same suite of leaf adaptations in dunelands as they do anywhere to prevent stress" (p. 70).
Keegan and Green (2013) explains "a free trade area (FTA) is formed when two or more countries agree to eliminate tariffs and other barriers that restrict trade" (pp. 69-70).
"Plants use the same suite of leaf adaptions in dunelands as they do anywhere to prevent stress" (Gabites, 2015, p. 70).
"A free trade area (FTA) is formed when two or more countries agree to eliminate tariffs and other barriers that restrict trade" (Keegan & Green, 2013, p. 69).
Example of in-text citations where different authors have the same surname
If you use references where two different primary authors have the same surname you need to include the initials of the primary author in all in-text citations, even if the dates of the publications are different.
E.g. To ensure that root storage is good you should handle them as little a possible to prevent damage, poor tapping or contamination of the soil (R. H. Peters, 2018).
When planting material that has been stored ensure that the roots are in good condition so as to maximise the chances of good growth (A. G. Peters & Tschopt, 2007, p. 15).
Example of a paraphrase
If you paraphrase (use your own words) to explain something you have read. Use of the page numbers in the in-text citation is optional, please ask your lecturer if you need to use a page number when paraphrasing.
Dunelands plants are no different from other plants in their stress responses (Gabites, 2015, p. 70)
Dunelands plants are no different from other plants in their stress responses (Gabites, 2015)
Example of a quote from a republished or translated book
(Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994)
(Freud, S., 1957/1999)
Note: there are two dates here - the original publication date and the publication of the source you have seen)
Example of a quote/paraphrase from an item that does not have page numbers or where you are citing something other than a page
It is fine to site paragraphs, sections, tables, figures, Powerpoint slides, supplemental materials or footnotes in your work. All of these are acceptable alternatives to page numbers if page numbers are not available.
(Smith, 2015, para. 2) - e. g. citing an unpaginated website
(Johnson, et al., 2010, Table 3) - citing a particular figure or table
(Shimamura, 2017, "What Can You Do" section) - e.g. citing an unpaginated report
(Kingston, 2010, Slide 7) - e.g. citing Powerpoint slides
(Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36-37) - citing a section of a play
(King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6) - citing a part of a religious work
If your quotation is fewer than 40 words, include it within the body of your writing with quotation marks.
Talwar and Vannathamby (2017) confirm that "the 5G system will require enhancements to performance metrics beyond the "hard" metrics of 3G/4G, which included peak rate, coverage, spectral efficiency, and latency" (p. 5)
If your quotation is longer than 40 words, it needs to be directly beneath the previous sentence, written as a block and indented. Quotation marks are not used.
In investigating people who have been actively involved with COVID-19, it could be important to assess disease identities.
The formation of disease identities is a complex discursive process, constructed by a variety of political, professional and cultural actors, in which advances in science or medicine are by no means the arbiter of how a disease is understood. Some disease identities are contested. Once afflicted, the sick fight to define who they are, shunning the label of ‘victim’, for example, and attempt to refashion identities for themselves using available repertoires of symbolic and material resources. But the latter are composed of categories collectively created over time by negotiations among different groups, ranging from medical professionals and government officials to artists and journalists. Disease identities are thus collective constructs (Dingwall et al., 2013, p. 76)
At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order, according to author surname or organisation name. It needs to include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. If a reference goes over more than one line, the second and subsequent lines must be indented five spaces.