APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association

Referencing Audio-Visual Works

At the end of your assignment, essay, or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title, and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books'


Physical Film (e.g. VHS/DVD)

(The director should be credited as the author of the film.  If the director is not known, someone in a similar role can be credited instead (e.g. editor, producer)

Reference List

Wyver, J. (Director). (2012). Shakespeare's sonnets [Film]. Illuminations.

In-text citation (Wyver, 2012)


Reference List

Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision. [Film]. American Psychological Association.

In-text citation (Fosha & Levenson, 2017)

(It is not necessary to specify how you watched a film (e.g. in a theatre, on DVD, streaming online). However, the format may be included when it is helpful to specify the version used (e.g. when the DVD version includes an extra commentary or outtakes or the Streaming).  Extra notes go after the word "Film and a semi-colon in the square brackets).


Reference List

Taylor, S. (Director). (2010). Environmental sustainability in business a case study [Film; educational DVD with study notes]. Video Education Australasia.

In-text citation (Taylor, 2010)


Online Film

Reference List

Mills, T. (Director). (2006). Wai 262 [Film]. Tawera Productions. https://www.nzonscreen.com/title/wai-262

In-text citation (Mills, 2006)


(For videos on YouTube, Vimeo, TED Talks and webinars, see examples below)

YouTube, Vimeo or other Streaming videos

Reference List

Cambridge University. (2020, January 22). Improving flowers to help feed the world [Video]. YouTube. 

In-text citation (Cambridge University, 2020)


Reference List

Brett. (2019, December 1). Capilano landscape architecture [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/376674893

In-text citation (Brett, 2019)

(The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work)


TED Talk

(When the TED Talk comes from TED's website, use the name of the speaker as the author).

Reference List

Ok, P. (2017, April). The magic of Khmer classical dance [Video]. TED Talks. 

In-text citation (Ok, 2017)


(When the TED talk or webinar is on YouTube or Vimeo, list the owner of the YouTube account (usually TED) as the author to aid retrieval.)

Reference List

TED. (2016, April 7). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video]. YouTube. 

In-text citation (TED, 2016)



For Webinars, follow the same pattern as for TED Talks.  Instead of [Video], use [Webinar]. 


TV Series 

Whole series

Reference List

Crane, D., Kauffman, M., & Bright, K. S. (Executive Producers). (1994-2004). Friends [TV series]. Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions; Warner Brothers Television.

In-text citation (Crane et al., 1994-2004)



Reference List

Ashton, P. (Director). (2020, May 4). Texas (Season 1, Episode 3) [TV series episode]. In Baldwin, D. (Executive Producer). Bradley Walsh & Son: Breaking Dad. Hungry Bear Media.

In-text citation (Ashton, 2020)

Things to remember

Authors' names : Use the Producer and the Director of a film in the place of the authors.


Dates of Films :Dates for films should be the date of first release, not when the video/DVD was published.


Italics : Only the film title or title of the CD-ROM should be in italics. 


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.