APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association


At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.


Print Book (no DOI)

(if your Print book has a DOI, see instructions at the bottom of this page.)

One Author

Reference List  

Weaver, J. C. (2014). Sorrows of a century: Interpreting suicide in New Zealand, 1900-2000. Bridget Williams Books.

In-text citation (Weaver, 2014).


Two Authors

Reference List

Smith, J. G., & Hinze, J. (2010). Construction management: Subcontractor scopes of work. CRC Press.

In-text citation (Smith & Hinze, 2010).


Three to Twenty Authors (all authors must be included)

Reference List

Abrahams, P. H., Hutchings, R. T., Boon, J. M., Spratt, J. D., & McMinn, R. M. H. (2008). McMinn's clinical atlas of human anatomy (6th ed.). Mosby Elsevier.

In-text citation (Abrahams et al., 2008).


Twenty-one or more authors

[List the first nineteen authors, then an ellipsis (i.e. three dots), then the last author in the reference.]

Reference List

Jones, K. L., Johnson, T., Zhu, X., Thomson, S. E., Adams, Z. T. Q., Brooks, R., Simpson, B. K., de Camp, Y., Xijiang, K., Nakamura, T., Cameron-Moore, D., Thompson, V., Sidhu, S., Eckstein, L., Bugombo, G., De Silva, J., Miller, M. R., Carrington, B., Fercontelli, F., . . . Norova, O. P. (2017). In-home early childhood education: Benefits of children learning in a familiar environment. Jones & Bartlett.

In-text citation (Jones et al., 2017).


Book with Corporate author

Reference List

Bundersamt fur Naturschutz. (1997). Biodiversity and tourism: Conflicts on the world's seacoasts and strategies for their solution. Springer.

First in-text citation (Bundersamt fur Naturschutz, 1997).

Subsequent in-text Citation  (BfN, 1997).

(if there is a well-known abbreviation)


Author is the same as Publisher

Reference List

British Veterinary Nursing Association. (2002). General veterinary nursing. 

[If a book is self-published by the author and so the publisher name is the same as the author, leave out any publisher details].

First In-text citation (British Veterinary Nursing Association, 2002).

Subsequent In-text citation  (BVNA, 2002).

(if there is a well-known abbreviation)


Edited Book

Reference List

Syngellakis, S. (Ed.). (2015). Earthquake-soil interaction. WIT Press.

In-text citation (Syngallakis, 2015).


A chapter from an Edited Book

Reference List

Arshed, N., & Danson, M. (2015). The literature review. In K. O'Gorman & R. Macintosh (Eds.), Research methods for business & management: A guide to writing your dissertation (pp. 31-49). Goodfellow.

In-text citation (Arshed & Danson, 2015).


Or if the book you got the chapter out of is the 2nd or 3rd edition etc., follow this pattern:

Reference List

Beiter, C., Cooper, E., Holt Williams, O. M., & Mudge, M. (2021). In J. M. Bassert, A. D Beal, & O. M. Samples (Eds.), McCurnin's clinical textbook for veterinary technicians and nurses (10th ed., pp. 753-772). Elsevier.

In-text citation (Beiter et al., 2021)


Electronic Book

A book from a Unitec library database

Reference List

Moxon, S. (2012). Sustainability in interior design. Laurence King.

In-text citation (Moxon, 2012).


A book freely available on the internet

Reference List

Parrish, D. (2007). T-shirts and suits: A guide to the business of creativity. Merseyside ACME. https://www.davidparrish.com/wp-content/themes/davidparrish/files/tshirts_and_suits.%20A%20Guide%20to%20the%20Business%20of%20Creativity.%20David%20Parrish.pdf

In-text citation (Parrish, 2007).


Book/Ebook with a DOI

Reference List

Md Amin, N., Ramly, R., & Gerbic, P. (2013). Issues and challenges of integrating digital library services in blended learning environments: A case study of Open University Malaysia (OUM). In C. Cool & K. B. Ng (Eds.), Recent developments in the design, construction and evaluation of digital libraries: Case studies (pp. 64-86). https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-2991-2.ch004

In-text citation (Md Amin, Ramly & Gerbic, 2013).

Things to remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).

Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.

Capitalisation: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

Splitting a URL: If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of the URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

Secondary Sources: You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work that you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he paraphrases Taylor - "Taylor identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.  New to APA 7th, include the date of the original work.  

Reference List

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. Routledge.

In-text citation

Taylor (1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2) identifies hooliganism as a response to social control.  

OR  .... one view is that hooliganism is a response to social control (Taylor, 1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)