APA 6th referencing

A guide to APA referencing (6th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association


At the end of your assignment, essay or project you are required to include a reference list containing the full details of each source. The list should be in alphabetical order and include the author/editor, date, title and publication information. References over one line long should use a hanging indent to indent the second and following lines.


One Author

Hunt, J. (2007). Wetlands of New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Random House.

In-text citation (Hunt, 2007)


Two Authors

Press, F., & Siever, R. (1998). Understanding earth (2nd ed.). New York, NY: W. H.  Freedman and Company.

In-text citation (Press & Siever, 1998)


Three to Five Authors

Illston, J. M., Dinwood, J. M., & Smith, A. A. (1979). Concrete, timber, and metals: The nature and behaviour of structured materials. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

First In-text citation (Illston, Dinwood, & Smith, 1979)

Subsequent in- text citation (Illston et al., 1979)


Six or Seven Authors

Alfredson, K., Leo, K., Picker, R., Loftus, J., Clark, K., & Wise, V. (2009). Applying international financial reporting standards (2nd ed.). Milton, Australia: Wiley.

In-text (Alfredson et al., 2009)


Eight or more Authors

[List the first six authors, then an ellipsis (i.e. three dots), then the last author in the reference.]

Standing, S., Ellis, H., Healy, J. C., Johanson, D., Williams, A., Collins, P., . . . Shah, P. (Eds.). (2004). Gray's anatomy: The anatomical basis of clinical practice (39th ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingston.

In-text citation (Standing et al., 2008)


Book with Corporate author

British Pharmacopoeia Commission. (2005). British pharmacopoeia. London, England: Stationery Office.

In-text citation (British Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2005)


Author is the same as the Publisher

American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.

In text citation (American Psychological Association, 2001)


Edited Book

Saxton, D. F. (Ed.). (1999). Comprehensive review of nursing in NCLEX-RN (16th ed.). St Louis, MO: Mosby.

In text citation (Saxton, 1999)


Chapter from an Edited Book

Browne, T. (1995). The role of geographical information systems in hydrology. In I. Foster, A. Burnel, & B. Webb (Eds.), Sediment and water quality in river catchments (pp. 33-48). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

In text citation (Browne, 1995)


Md Amin, N., Ramly, R., & Gerbic, P. (2013). Issues and challenges of integrating digital library services in blended learning environments: A case study of Open University Malaysia (OUM). In C. Cool & K. B. Ng (Eds.), Recent developments in the design, construction and evaluation of digital libraries: Case studies (pp. 64-86). doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-2991-2.ch004

In text citation (Md Amin, Ramly & Gerbic, 2013)


Electronic Books

A book from a database

Knutson, J. (2001). Project management for business professionals: A comprehensive guide. Retrieved from Ebrary database.

In text citation (Knutson, 2001).


A book from the internet

Arnold, S. E. (2005). The Google legacy. Available from http://www.infonortics.com/publications/google/google-legacy.html

In text citation (Arnold, 2005)

Things to remember

Authors' names : Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.


Editors' names : If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).


Italics : Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.


Capitalization : The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.


Splitting a URL : If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.


Secondary Sources : You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work which you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he quotes Taylor "Ian Taylor's influential analysis (1971) in which he identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. London: Routledge.

In text citation (as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)