APA referencing 7th edition

A guide to APA referencing (7th edition). APA stands for American Psychological Association



This tab is for referencing tables.  

If you are referencing a Figure (e.g. a chart or graph), please see the Referencing Figures tab.

For how to handle multiple authors, see 'Referencing Books

The advice below is for assignments.  If you are completing theses or other published works, please see the section at the bottom of this page.

Table you have created yourself from your own information

Follow this style if you have created your own table from your own information

The basic format is:

Table (no.)

Title of figure

(The figure)

(.... created by author)

Note: (Any further useful information about the figure) - this is optional


For example

Table 1

Health and safety breaches throughout Building Project 4 [Photograph]

Health and Safety breaches


No hard-hat worn


Safety meeting not attended


Unsafe use of circular saw


Not completing daily report


Unsafe behaviour after warning


(Table created by author).

Note: Showing the most common types of health and safety breaches.

No entry in the Reference list

In-text citation

As explained in Figure 1,     OR    Failure to attend the safety meetings was the greatest health & safety breach on the project (Figure 1). 


Table you are reproducing or adapting from elsewhere and inserting into your assignment

The basic format is:

Table (no.)

Title of table

(The table)

Note: Explanations to supplement or clarify information in the figure.  This may include explanations of units of measurement, symbols, abbreviations, shading, colour etc (only if needed).  From (information for type of source), Copyright year by the name of the copyright holder.

(For adapted figures, it should be "Adapted from (information for type of source)""

(Note: if no further explanation is required, this section can be omitted.)


From a book or e-book

Table 1

Consolidation-swell test data for oedometer compressibility

Note: According to applied stress in psf. From Foundation engineering for expansive soils (p. 134), by J. D. Nelson, K. C. Chao, D. D. Overton, and E. J. Nelson, 2015, John Wiley & Sons. Copyright 2015 by John Wiley & Sons.

Reference List

Nelson, J. D., Chao, K. C., Overton, D. D., & Nelson, E. J. (2015). Foundation engineering for expansive soils. John Wiley & Sons.

In-text citation

As explained in Table 1,     OR    comparison of consolidation swell-test data (Table 1). 


From a journal article

Table 2

FarmsOnLine (FOL) vs Agribase

Note: Comparison of the two databases in recording the presence of types of farm animals showing superiority of FarmsOnLine. From "Compatibility between livestock databases used for quantitative biosecurity response in New Zealand", by C. P. Jewell, M. van Andel, W. D. Vink, and A, M. J. McFadden, 2016, New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 64(3), p. 161 (https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2015.1117955). Copyright 2016 by New Zealand Veterinary Association.

Reference List

Jewell, C. P., van Andel, M, Vink, W. D., & McFadden, A. M. J. (2016). Compatibility between livestock databases used for quantitative biosecurity response in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 64(3), 158-164. https://doi..org/10.1080/00480169.2015.1117955

In-text citation

As shown in Table 2,     OR    FarmsOnLine is clearly a more accurate database than AgriBase (Table 2). 


From a website (e.g. Stats NZ)

Table 3

Barriers to innovation in New Zealand businesses

Note: From Business operations survey: 2019, by StatsNZ, 2020 (https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/business-operations-survey-2019). Licensed under CC BY 4.0.

(In this case, the StatsNZ website was Creative Commons, so the Creative Commons licence details were entered instead of a Copyright statement.)

Reference List

StatsNZ. (2020). Business operations survey: 2019. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/business-operations-survey-2019

In-text citation

As shown in Table 3,     OR    The cost to develop or introduce new things is the greatest barrier (Table 3). 


From a proprietary information source that is not publicly available

Table 4

Lion Feeding requirements


Note: Shows the meats that each lion dislikes. From Auckland Zoopersonal communication, April 20, 2022. Copyright 2022 by Auckland Zoo. 

No entry in the reference list

In-text citation

As shown in Table 4,     OR   One of the lions does not like wallaby meat (Table 4).


Postgraduate Students & Staff - Copyright requirements

If you are inserting a table into a thesis or published publication, you need to get permission to use that table.  Once you have that permission, you can add to the end of the Note: beneath your figure: Reprinted with permission OR Adapted with permission.  Alternatively, if you are using a Creative Commons image, insert the details of the relevant license.

Creating a table using information from multiple sources?

In the case that you are creating a table with information from multiple sources, please check with the Learning Advisor team or your Subject Librarian for the correct way to do this.

Things to remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.

Editors' names: If you are referencing the whole book the editors' name should be Surname, Initial. Initial, e.g. Walker, S. J.

If however, you are referencing a chapter of an edited book the editors' name should be Initial. Initial. Surname. eg. In S. J. Walker (Ed.).

Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.

Capitalisation: The first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.

Splitting a URL: If your URL needs to be split do not insert a hyphen. Break the URL before a punctuation mark.  Do not add a full stop at the end of the URL as this may appear to be part of the URL and cause retrieval problems.

Secondary Sources: You can only reference information that you have actually seen.  If that book or journal article quotes another piece of work that you also want to quote, you need to cite the information as a secondary citation.

For example, you read a book by Sandvoss, in which he paraphrases Taylor - "Taylor identifies hooliganism as a response to social control..."

If you have not read the item by Taylor you would reference the Sandvoss book.  New to APA 7th, include the date of the original work.  

Reference List

Sandvoss, C. (2003). A game of two halves: Football, television and globalization. Routledge.

In-text citation

Taylor (1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2) identifies hooliganism as a response to social control.  

OR  .... one view is that hooliganism is a response to social control (Taylor, 1971, as cited in Sandvoss, 2003, p. 2)